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INDEPENDENT BELARUS
публикация №1125563407

01 сентября 2005 Александр Павлович Шиманский Best topics

Аннотация от автора: Following the August 1991 coup d'etat (see Glossary) in Moscow and declarations of independence by Estonia, Latvia, and Ukraine, the Supreme Soviet in Minsk declared the independence of Belarus on August 25, 1991, by giving its Declaration of State Sovereignty the status of a constitutional document and renaming the country the Republic of Belarus...

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BELARUS: STALIN AND RUSSIFICATION
публикация №1125563351

01 сентября 2005 Александр Павлович Шиманский Best topics

Аннотация от автора: But the country's misery did not end in the summer of 1944, when the Red Army "liberated" it from the Nazis. Stalin ordered sweeping purges and mass deportations of local administrators and members of the CPSU, as well as those who had collaborated with the Nazis in any way, those who had spent the war in slave labor and prison camps in Germany and were now "ideologically contaminated" in Stalin's view, those who were suspected of antiSoviet sentiments, and those who were accused of "bourgeois nationalism." Only in 1971 did the Belorussian SSR return to its pre-World War II population level, but without its large Jewish populace...

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BELARUS: WORLD WAR II
публикация №1125563314

01 сентября 2005 Александр Павлович Шиманский Best topics

Аннотация от автора: Germany attacked Poland on September 1, 1939. Two and onehalf weeks later, Soviet troops moved into the western portions of Belorussia and Ukraine. Ignorant of, or disbelieving the existence of, mass persecutions under Stalin, most Belorussians welcomed the Red Army, only to learn quickly of the harsh reality of communism. Arrests and deportations were common, and the socalled flourishing of national culture was strictly circumscribed by the ideological and political goals of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU--see Glossary). About 300,000 persons were deported from western Belorussia to Soviet labor camps between September 1939 and June 1941, when Germany attacked the Soviet Union...

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BELARUS: WORLD WAR AND REVOLUTION
публикация №1125563278

01 сентября 2005 Александр Павлович Шиманский Best topics

Аннотация от автора: The outbreak of World War I in 1914 turned Belorussia into a zone of strict martial law, military operations, and great destruction. Large German and Russian armies fought fiercely and caused the expulsion or departure of more than 1 million civilians from the country. The Russian government's inept war efforts and ineffective economic policies prompted high food prices, shortages of goods, and many needless deaths in the war. Discontent in the cities and the countryside spread, leading to strikes, riots, and the eventual downfall of the tsarist government...

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THE DEFENITION OF PUNISHMENT
публикация №1125563228

01 сентября 2005 Александр Павлович Шиманский Best topics

Аннотация от автора: Punishment has become an increasingly problematic and controversial category in the last forty years or so. Particular punishments such as death penalty have become of wider divisions. Hanging is a means to an end. It can not function as a deterrent. It would so function that certain criminals justly deserve to be executed, whatever the deterrent effect of the penalty. Prisons have become a focus of controversy. Libertarian lobby argues that prisons have failed, they serve no purpose but to degrade inmates and to breed hardened criminals and should be abolished. An economy-minded lobby calls for shorter sentences, reserving prisons for the most serious cases...

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Yale University | Йельский университет
публикация №1045755837

20 февраля 2003 Александр Павлович Шиманский Best topics

Аннотация от автора: Yale University is a coeducational, privately endowed, nonsectarian school in New Haven, Connecticut. Chartered in 1701, Yale is the third oldest institution of higher learning in the United States. Only Harvard University and the College of William and Mary are older...

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Yankee | Янки (население США)
публикация №1045755740

20 февраля 2003 Александр Павлович Шиманский Best topics

Аннотация от автора: People of other countries often call any person from the United States a Yankee. In the southern United States, the word Yankee means a Northerner, or someone who comes from north of Mason and Dixon's Line. But most of the people of the United States use the word Yankee to mean a New Englander...

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Песня американских пионеров "Yankee Doodle"
публикация №1045755637

20 февраля 2003 Александр Павлович Шиманский Best topics

Аннотация от автора: Yankee Doodle is a song that has been popular in the United States since the 1700's. Music historians disagree about the song's origin, but they know that its melody and words have changed over time. In 1767, American composer Andrew Barton used "Yankee Doodle" in his opera The Disappointment. The song must have been well known by that time because Barton did not write out the music. He simply directed the performers to sing his words to the tune of "Yankee Doodle" ...

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Yeats, William Butler (1865-1939), (Вильям Йетс, английский писатель)
публикация №1045755547

20 февраля 2003 Александр Павлович Шиманский Best topics

Аннотация от автора: Yeats, pronounced yayts, William Butler (1865-1939), an Irish poet and dramatist, won the 1923 Nobel Prize for literature. Many critics consider him the greatest poet of his time. Yeats led the Irish Literary Revival, a movement of the late 1800's and early 1900's that stimulated new appreciation of traditional Irish literature. The movement also encouraged the creation of works written in the spirit of Irish culture, as distinct from English culture...

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Yiddish language (идиш - язык европейских евреев)
публикация №1045755472

20 февраля 2003 Александр Павлович Шиманский Best topics

Аннотация от автора: Yiddish language is a language of European Jews and their descendants. Yiddish has been the language of the Ashkenazim for about 1,000 years. The Ashkenazim are Jews primarily of central and eastern European origin. Yiddish is generally classified as a Germanic language, like English, German, Dutch, and the Scandinavian tongues--Icelandic, Danish, Norwegian, and Swedish. However, Yiddish is written in Hebrew characters from right to left like Hebrew and Aramaic, two Semitic languages used by the Jews...

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