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Vladimir Putin, President of Russia
публикация №1188912574

04 сентября 2007 Александр Павлович Шиманский POLITICS

Аннотация от автора: Russia, officially called the Russian Federation, was by far the largest republic of the former USSR. Its estimated 2002 population of 145 million accounted for slightly more than half the Soviet total. Its 17 million square kilometers (6.6 million square miles) comprised 76% of the territory of the USSR, stretching across Eurasia to the Pacific across 11 time zones. Russia also inherited the lion's share of the natural resources, industrial base, and military assets of the former Soviet Union. Much of its territory in the north and Far East, however, is sparsely populated. Although Russia is nearly twice the size of the United States, its population is only a bit more than half the U.S. total...

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Organizations In Russia
публикация №1188910240

04 сентября 2007 Александр Павлович Шиманский POLITICS

Аннотация от автора: A chamber of commerce that promotes the economic and business activities of the country to the rest of the world operates in Moscow. The Russian Academy of Entrepreneurship assists business owners. There are several professional associations representing a wide variety fields, such as the Health Workers Union of the Russian Federation and the Association of Russian Automobile Dealers. Some professional associations also promote public education and research in specific technical or scientific fields, such as the Russian Medical Society...

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Political Parties Of Russia
публикация №1188909936

04 сентября 2007 Александр Павлович Шиманский POLITICS

Аннотация от автора: In the elections to the State Duma held 12 December 1993, 225 of the 450 seats were elected on the basis of proportional representation from party lists, which had to receive a minimum of 5% of the national vote to gain representation. The other 225 seats were elected from single-member districts...

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Government Of Russia
публикация №1188909816

04 сентября 2007 Александр Павлович Шиманский POLITICS

Аннотация от автора: Russia is a democratic federative state based on rule of law with a division of power among the legislative, executive, and judicial branches. It is a constitutional government, based on a post-Soviet constitution, which was approved in a referendum held 12 December 1993. The constitution establishes a bicameral legislature known as the Federal Assembly. The lower house (State Duma) consists of 450 elected deputies while the 178-member upper house (Council of the Federation) is composed of representatives of the provinces and autonomous republics that make up Russia...

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Local Government Of Russia
публикация №1188909770

04 сентября 2007 Александр Павлович Шиманский POLITICS

Аннотация от автора: Russia has a complicated patchwork of regional and local governments, including 89 federal subjects of constituencies. Those 89 units are not of equal status. Russia is divided into 6 krais, 49 oblasts, 1 autonomous oblast, 10 autonomous okrugs, and two independent cities (Moscow and St. Petersburg). There are also 21 autonomous republics where non-Russian minorities predominate (or once predominated). The Chechen republic of Ichkeria, is, de facto, a separate state, although not recognized as such by the federal authorities...

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Post-Cold War Espionage Between the United States and Russia: How Has the Mission Changed?
публикация №1188906831

04 сентября 2007 Александр Павлович Шиманский POLITICS

Аннотация от автора: The ideological conflict between capitalism and communism sparked the Cold War, fought by the two countries that emerged most powerful from World War II--the United States and the Soviet Union. Espionage between the two superpowers was a major component of the Cold War. When the Soviet Union collapsed in 1991 and the Cold War ended, the nature of espionage between the United States and Russia changed dramatically...

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Russia as Part of the West
публикация №1188906701

04 сентября 2007 Александр Павлович Шиманский POLITICS

Аннотация от автора: British statesman Winston Churchill once famously referred to Russia as a "riddle wrapped in a mystery inside an enigma." The consternation expressed in his statement at least partly derived from the question of Russia's identity as a nation. For many observers, Russia is undeniably part of the West. A Christian nation since the conversion of its people in 988, Russia has been intimately tied to Europe by culture, trade, and diplomacy, as well as by faith. The basis for its laws and social organization, from the tsars through the communists to its current leaders, has shared many commonalities with the West. The development of its art, science, and philosophy had pronounced Western influences and went a long way toward influencing the West itself...

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Free to Speak? Establishing a Free Press in Russia
публикация №1188905750

04 сентября 2007 Александр Павлович Шиманский POLITICS

Аннотация от автора: the collapse of the Soviet Union. The Russian media began to actively report on the government and to question its actions. When President Vladimir Putin succeeded Boris Yeltsin into office, he implemented restrictions on the media that greatly reduced their freedoms. Putin also began to reinstate government controls over the media and to prosecute media companies and owners who did not comply...

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Courts In Russia
публикация №1188314775

28 августа 2007 Александр Павлович Шиманский POLITICS

Аннотация от автора: The former Soviet government had a political police system called the Committee on State Security, known as the KGB. The KGB could interfere with and influence the legal system, and major violations of human rights took place. The KGB no longer exists in Russia. Today, Russia has two security agencies. The Federal Counterintelligence Service handles internal security, and the Foreign Intelligence Service collects information from other countries. In addition, Russia's 1993 constitution protects the civil rights of all Russian citizens. The prosecutor-general, who serves as the chief legal officer of Russia, is nominated by the president and is approved by the Federation Council.

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Political Situation In Russia In 1991-1996
публикация №1188314589

28 августа 2007 Александр Павлович Шиманский POLITICS

Аннотация от автора: The Communist Party was the only legal political party in the Soviet Union until March 1990. At that time, the Soviet Constitution - which gave the Communist Party its broad powers - was amended. A loose coalition of political parties with a democratic platform, known as the Democratic Russia Movement, began to play a key role in the reform movement. The Democratic Russia Movement secured Yeltsin's victory in a free presidential election held in June 1991. The collapse of the Communist Party and the Soviet Union caused the Democratic Russia Movement to break apart. Groups that had opposed the Soviet Communist Party developed into separate political parties.

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