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Women's Rights in the Early Soviet Republic
публикация №1190296770

20 сентября 2007 Александр Павлович Шиманский DEMOGRAPHICS

Аннотация от автора: Did the Soviets support gender equity and women's rights?

Viewpoint: Yes. The Soviets viewed women as critical to the success of the state, and they ensured the fulfillment of women's rights and aspirations.

Viewpoint: No. The Soviets failed to establish meaningful equality for women, and many state directives contained fundamental gender biases.

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Soviet Nationalities Policy
публикация №1190296703

20 сентября 2007 Александр Павлович Шиманский DEMOGRAPHICS

Аннотация от автора: Was the Soviet nationalities policy instituted by Vladimir Lenin fair and balanced?

Viewpoint: Yes. The Soviets largely fulfilled Lenin's promises of national autonomy and nondiscrimination.

Viewpoint: No. The Soviets essentially reconstructed the tsarist empire and imposed de facto Great Russian rule.

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Yukagir
публикация №1190293380

20 сентября 2007 Александр Павлович Шиманский DEMOGRAPHICS

Аннотация от автора: The Yukagir are one of the smallest minorities in the former USSR. Territorially, the Yukagir are subdivided into two groups: the Taiga group lives in the Upper Kolyma District of the Yakut Republic and in the Saimanchanskoi District of Magadan Province along the tributaries of the Kolyma River. The Tundra Yukagir reside in the Lower Kolyma District of the Yakut Republic between the Kolyma and the Indigirka rivers. Both groups live among numerically predominant neighbors: Yakuts, Chukchee, Even, and Russians...

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Volga Tatars
публикация №1190293300

20 сентября 2007 Александр Павлович Шиманский DEMOGRAPHICS

Аннотация от автора: The Volga Tatars are the westernmost of all Turkic ethnic groups living in the former Soviet Union. Among them, there are two major groups, the Kazan Tatars and the Mishars, who share a common literary language and culture despite ethnogenetic and linguistic particularities. The Volga Tatars live mainly in Tatarstan and Bashkirstan in Russia, but they can also be found in large numbers in other areas of Russia as well as in the republics of Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, and Kyrgyzstan in particular. As late as the second half of the nineteenth century, Volga Tatars preferred to identify themselves and to be identified by others as "Mösälman" (Muslims), in addition to using ethnonyms such as "Kazanlï," "Bulghar," and "Mishär." The Russians and other peoples identified them simply as "Tatars," a practice which often led to confusion, since Russians used the ethnonym to designate any Muslim of Turkic ethnic background living in European Russia and the Caucasus. The ethnonym "Tatar" was less than universally embraced because the popular as well as official identification of the Volga Tatars with the Mongol Tatars of the thirteenth century was at the root of the stigma attached to it. The ethnonym "Tatar" was controversial then, a quality it retained into the 1990s, when glasnost and perestroika made possible the renewal of the ethnonymic debates. The name of their homeland has changed since the tenth century from "Bulghar" to "Kazan," "Idel-Ural," and "Tatarstan" or "Tataria." In the Soviet system, their titular republic was called Tatarstan Avtonomiyale Sovet Sotsialistik Respublikase. Tatarstan is presently part of the Russian Federation formed in 1992...

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Tuvans
публикация №1190292880

20 сентября 2007 Александр Павлович Шиманский DEMOGRAPHICS

Аннотация от автора: Most of Tuva is contained today in the Tuvan Republic, one of eighteen republics in Russia. The Tuvan Republic comprises about 171,000 square kilometers. The capital is Kyzyl...

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Tsakhurs
публикация №1190292835

20 сентября 2007 Александр Павлович Шиманский DEMOGRAPHICS

Аннотация от автора: The Tsakhurs live in the southwestern part of Daghestan (the Rutul District) and in northern Azerbaijan (the Zakatal and Kakh districts). The Daghestanian Tsakhurs occupy a territory that is closed off and difficult of access called Mountain Magal (on the upper reaches of the Samur River). Paths and an automobile road join them to their closest neighbors, the Rutuls and the Lezgins, and mountain passes over the main Caucasus chain link them to Azerbaijan. The climate is cold: there are snowdrifts and avalanches in the winter, whereas in the summer the rivers sometimes flood. The Azerbaijan Tsakhurs occupy the foothills and plains, areas which have a temperate climate, fertile soil, and good communications...

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Tats
публикация №1190292790

20 сентября 2007 Александр Павлович Шиманский DEMOGRAPHICS

Аннотация от автора: The Tats live in the Caucasus: in the Azerbaijan Republic and in Daghestan. The Tats of Azerbaijan dwell on the Apsheron Peninsula (where the city of Baku is located) and in the Kubinsky, Konakhkendsky, Shemakhinsky, Divichinsky, and Ismailinsky regions--in terms of the pre-Revolutionary administrative divisions, the Bakinsky, Kubinsky, Geokchaysky, and Shemakhinsky districts (uezd) of Baku Province (Bakinskaia Guberniia) and the Kazakhsky and Zangezursky districts of Elisavetpol Province. In Daghestan the Tats live in seven settlements in the vicinity of Derbent (the former Kaitag-Tabasaran District). "Tat" is the self-designation of the Tats. In the past it was also a social term, reflecting the form of life and the status of certain groups of the population. The Turks use the name "Tat" for agriculturists, the settled inhabitants of Central Asia, the Crimea, and the Caucasus. The Tats dwell in three natural climatic zones: a mountain zone with an extended winter and a short summer; a foothill zone with a warm, quite capricious climate (a garden zone); and a zone on the plain (the Apsheron Peninsula) with an arid climate, strong winds, and sandy, saline soil...

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Tabasarans
публикация №1190292741

20 сентября 2007 Александр Павлович Шиманский DEMOGRAPHICS

Аннотация от автора: The Tabasarans are an ethnic group of the former USSR; they live in southeastern Daghestan (the Khiv and Tabasaran districts, or raions), and some have resettled in the lowlands (in the villages of Mamedkala and Daghestanskie Ogni in the Derbent District) and the foothills (of the Tabasaran District). Their neighbors to the north are the Kaitag Dargins, with the Lezgins to the south, the Aghuls to the west, and the Azerbaijanis to the east. The largest Tabasaran settlements are the villages of Khiv, Turag, Khurik, Mezhgül, Kondik, Tinit, Sïrtïch, and Khuchni. The Tabasaran territory comprises two natural geographic zones: the upper Rubas Basin in the north and the left bank of the central Chirakh-Chai and the upper Charchag-Su rivers in the south. For the most part the territory is foothills, but part of it is plains, mountains, and valleys...

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Rutuls
публикация №1190292671

20 сентября 2007 Александр Павлович Шиманский DEMOGRAPHICS

Аннотация от автора: The Rutuls are a people living in the Caucasus region of what is now southern Russia, in the southern part of Daghestan (Rutul District) in the valleys of the Samur River and its tributaries. Traditionally, the Rutuls had no collective term for themselves, identifying themselves only by village...

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Orochi
публикация №1189694694

13 сентября 2007 Александр Павлович Шиманский DEMOGRAPHICS

Аннотация от автора: The Orochi are one of the peoples of northern Russia, inhabitants of the Far East living in Khabarovsk Krai, mainly near the month of the Tumnin River; in the past they also lived along the tributaries of the Amur and on Lake Kizi. Their population in 1989 was 915 (in 1926 it was 647 and in 1970 it was 1,089). They speak the Orochi language of the Manchu-Tungusic Branch of Altaic. Their dispersed settlement pattern led to many mixed marriages, even in the nineteenth century. At present marriages with Russians predominate. Many young people have modern professions and live in cities and towns with mixed populations. Most of the young people no longer have a command of their national language...

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