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Февраль 2017


© Literacy and Education in the Early Soviet Union
публикация №1190296667

20 сентября 2007 Александр Павлович Шиманский - Education and health

Аннотация от автора:

Did the Bolsheviks accelerate achievements in literacy and primary education in the Soviet Union? Viewpoint: Yes. Soviet mass literacy and education programs were swift and impressive agents of modernization. Viewpoint: No. Soviet accomplishments in education and literacy were neither more impressive than similar developments in Western Europe nor dramatic improvements over what the tsarist government had achieved.

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Health In Russia
публикация №1188910643

04 сентября 2007 Александр Павлович Шиманский - Education and health

Аннотация от автора: As of the mid-1990s, the overall organization of the health care system has largely been carried over from the Soviet era. Primary care has been delivered through basic units called uchastoks. In rural areas, these districts are served by health posts staffed by midwives or physicians' assistants, while health centers and urban polyclinics are available in larger population centers. The secondary-care network has also been retained from the Soviet era and consisted of uchastok hospitals and health centers, district hospitals and polyclinics, and regional hospitals and polyclinics. Medical facilities throughout the country are generally inadequate, with equipment that is both outdated and in poor condition. A survey conducted in the mid-1990s found a high level of dissatisfaction with the health care system on the part of both the general public and health care personnel, as well as widespread support for privatization. As of 2004, there were an estimated 417 physicians, 787 nurses, and 32 dentists per 100,000 people. Total health care expenditure was estimated at 4.6% of GDP...

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Education In Russia
публикация №1188910570

04 сентября 2007 Александр Павлович Шиманский - Education and health

Аннотация от автора: Education, mostly free and state funded, is also compulsory for 10 years. Primary school covers four years, followed by another five years of basic school. Senior secondary schools offer two-year programs. Vocational secondary schools offer a four-year course of studies. Although Russian is the most common medium of instruction, other languages are also taught, especially at the secondary level. In the early 1990s, many privately owned institutions were opened, and the education system was modified with the introduction of a revised curriculum. The academic year runs from September to June...

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Social Development Of Russia
публикация №1188910131

04 сентября 2007 Александр Павлович Шиманский - Education and health

Аннотация от автора: A social insurance system provides pensions for old-age, survivorship, and disability. The program is funded by employer payrolls, and self-employed persons and independent farmers contribute a fixed amount monthly. The government provides subsidies when needed. The first laws governing sickness benefits were implemented in 1912. All citizens and refugees are entitled to medical care; employed persons receive cash benefits for sickness. There is also a benefit provided to those caring for a sick child. Work injury is funded by the employer. Maternity benefits cover 100% of earnings from between 10 and 12 weeks before the expected date of childbirth and 10 to 16 weeks after childbirth. A universal system of family allowances provides a birth grant, a funeral grant, and a monthly benefit for each child under the age of 16...

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