20 сентября 2007 Александр Павлович Шиманский SCIENCE
Аннотация от автора: Were communist intellectuals duped by Soviet propaganda?
Viewpoint: Yes. Taken in by Soviet propaganda, Western intellectuals believed in communism because they were generally ignorant of its true costs and personally alienated from their own governments and societies.
Viewpoint: No. Western intellectuals were throughly convinced that in theory communism offered the best and most promising solutions for humanity's problems and that Soviet failures would be overcome.
Science and Technology In Russia
04 сентября 2007 Александр Павлович Шиманский SCIENCE
Аннотация от автора: The Russian Academy of Sciences, founded in 1725, is the chief coordinating body for scientific research in Russia through its science councils and commissions. It has sections of physical, technical, and mathematical sciences; chemical, technological, and biological sciences, and earth sciences, and controls a network of nearly 300 research institutes. The Russian Academy of Agricultural Sciences, founded in 1929, has departments of plant breeding and genetics; arable farming and the use of agricultural chemicals; feed and fodder crops production; plant protection; livestock production; veterinary science; mechanization, electrification, and automation in farming; forestry; the economics and management of agricultural production; land reform and the organization of land use; land reclamation and water resources; and the storage and processing of agricultural products. It controls a network of nearly 100 research institutes. It supervises a number of research institutes, experimental and breeding stations, dendraria and arboreta. The Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, founded in 1944, has departments of preventive medicine, clinical medicine, and medical and biological sciences, and controls a network of nearly 100 research institutes...