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Russo-Japanese War
публикация №1190296572

20 сентября 2007 Научная цифровая библиотека ПОРТАЛУС - Imperial Russia

Аннотация от автора: Vexed by Russia's expansion into the Liaodong Peninsula after the humiliating Triple Intervention of 1895, challenged by Russian troops in Manchuria even after suppression of the Boxers in China, and denied recognition of its claim to exclusive rights in Korea, Japan spent a decade on countermeasures: application of its Chinese war indemnity to ground and naval buildup, consummation of a defensive alliance with England, and direct negotiations with Russia. When diplomacy foundered in early 1904 Japanese hard-liners prevailed and Tokyo opted for hostilities. Control of the sea lanes to the continent was prerequisite. Japan broke off its diplomatic relations with Russia on 6 February and then struck by surprise on 8 February, when Japanese destroyers mauled the Russian squadron at Port Arthur (Chinese, Lüshun; Japanese, Ryojun). Both parties declared war on 10 February...

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Schlieffen Plan of the German General Staff
публикация №1190295077

20 сентября 2007 Научная цифровая библиотека ПОРТАЛУС - Imperial Russia

Аннотация от автора: Alfred von Schlieffen, Chief of the German General Staff from 1891 to 1906, invited description, when not caricature, as an archetype of the specialist with tunnel vision, a man who would send staff problems to subordinates on Christmas Eve and expect a solution on his desk the morning of 26 December. The operational plan bearing his name is usually described in corresponding terms, as a comprehensive, detailed scheme for deploying the German army so as to conquer France by destroying the French army in one giant enveloping movement through the Low Countries.
In the years after the Great War supporters of the plan--most of them German officers--presented it as a design for victory, disrupted by the mistakes of Schlieffen's successor. Critics, whose numbers have steadily increased, describe it as a doomsday machine triggering general war by its emphasis on a first strike and as a military myth, requiring its details to go impossibly right in order to have any real chance of succeeding...

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San Stefano, Treaty of
публикация №1189693989

13 сентября 2007 Научная цифровая библиотека ПОРТАЛУС - Imperial Russia

Аннотация от автора: Signed on March 3, 1878, this treaty concluded one of the major wars fought between Russia and the Ottoman Empire (1877-1878)...

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Russia Invades East Prussia, August, 1914 [historical document]
публикация №1189693800

13 сентября 2007 Научная цифровая библиотека ПОРТАЛУС - Imperial Russia

Аннотация от автора: Russia's entrance into World War I...

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Peter the Great Issues Reforms, 1689-1725 [historical document]
публикация №1189693689

13 сентября 2007 Научная цифровая библиотека ПОРТАЛУС - Imperial Russia

Аннотация от автора: Westernization of Russia...

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First Meeting of the Duma (Russian Parliament Convenes), May 10, 1906-July 21, 1906 [historical document]
публикация №1189693534

13 сентября 2007 Научная цифровая библиотека ПОРТАЛУС - Imperial Russia

Аннотация от автора: First meeting of Russian representative assembly...

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German Occupation of Eastern Europe during World War I
публикация №1188915359

04 сентября 2007 Научная цифровая библиотека ПОРТАЛУС - Imperial Russia

Аннотация от автора: As the Eastern Front stabilized after the great battles of 1915, grandiose projects of exploitation increasingly appeared in memoranda at the highest levels of the government and the army. A Central European customs union, new thrones in the Baltic states and Poland, German colonization of lands vacated by wartime migrations--all seemed possible. German general Erich Ludendorff suggested annexations of land ranging as far east as the Caspian Sea. The discourse reflected a developed consciousness of the East as a source of both current German power and endless possibilities for the future...

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Austria-Hungary in 1914
публикация №1188915232

04 сентября 2007 Научная цифровая библиотека ПОРТАЛУС - Imperial Russia

Аннотация от автора: Long described in the historiography of the Great War as a German cat's-paw, Austria-Hungary is being restored to the status of an independent actor in the diplomacy that led up to the outbreak of hostilities. Since the Bosnian Crisis (1908), the Dual Monarchy's viability was being increasingly questioned. Austria was under increasing economic pressure in the Near East even from its ostensible ally, Germany. British publicists and French diplomats pictured brave futures for the Slavs of southeastern Europe once the Habsburg Empire should disappear. The increasingly strident claims of Austria that its great-power status was being ignored went overlooked--with few questions as to what might happen should Austria not accept its assigned fate and merely fade away...

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Alexander Kerensky and World War I
публикация №1188915183

04 сентября 2007 Научная цифровая библиотека ПОРТАЛУС - Imperial Russia

Аннотация от автора: The first Russian Revolution (March 1917) grew out of a complex synergy of factors, all traceable to a common source: comprehensive war-weariness. The Provisional Government that replaced the Tsarist Empire had no general mandate. It consisted of an uneasy coalition of politicians and bureaucrats from the more-conservative parties and the more-liberal element of the former administration. It began by breaking sharply with its predecessor on many fronts. The new government proclaimed freedom of speech, press, and assembly. It abolished restrictions based on class, nationality, and religion. It declared its intention to call for a freely elected national assembly. It shared de facto power with the radical Petrograd Soviet, and the two bodies worked together in the early days of the revolution despite mutual suspicion...

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Peter the Great Issues Reforms, 1689-1725
публикация №1188915059

04 сентября 2007 Научная цифровая библиотека ПОРТАЛУС - Imperial Russia

Аннотация от автора: Westernization of Russia...

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