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Lenin's New Economic Policy
публикация №1190296614

20 сентября 2007 Научная цифровая библиотека ПОРТАЛУС - Soviet Russia (1917-53)

Аннотация от автора: Was Vladimir Lenin committed to maintaining the New Economic Policy (NEP)?

Viewpoint: Yes. Vladimir Lenin was firmly committed to NEP and would have pursued it over the long term.

Viewpoint: No. Vladimir Lenin never saw NEP as more than a compromise to remain in power, and he would have eliminated it as soon as circumstances permitted.

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Civil War, Russian [1918-22]
публикация №1190296070

20 сентября 2007 Научная цифровая библиотека ПОРТАЛУС - Soviet Russia (1917-53)

Аннотация от автора: The Russian Revolution of 7 November 1917 was little more than a coup d'état in St. Petersburg and Moscow. The Bolsheviks seized power in the name of the soviets (councils), promising to rule until free elections convened a constituent assembly. After only one session, the Bolsheviks dissolved the assembly. That act, more than any other, sparked the Russian Civil War (1918-22), although it did not fully blossom until after the humiliating peace with Germany in 1918. During the next five years there were concurrent civil wars between revolutionaries, counterrevolutionaries, and ethnic minorities; war with Poland; foreign intervention; and implementation of revolutionary socialism under the banner War Communism. Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, and Poland won their independence, while Poland, Turkey, and Romania acquired pieces of the Soviet borderlands. The civil war was the class struggle that the revolution bypassed. It shaped the institutions and perceptions of the Soviet state and resulted in the adoption of autocratic institutions to stamp out counterrevolution...

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The Postwar Collapse of the Allies' Coalition
публикация №1190295510

20 сентября 2007 Научная цифровая библиотека ПОРТАЛУС - Soviet Russia (1917-53)

Аннотация от автора: Was the postwar collapse of the Allies' coalition inevitable?

Viewpoint: Yes, the grand coalition of the Allied powers was doomed to collapse after World War II because it was built only on the common interest of defeating the Axis; mutual mistrust and postwar self-interest caused the Cold War.

Viewpoint: No, the collapse of the grand coalition was not foreordained; it was caused by the United States breaking from its pattern of traditional isolationism after the war and the Soviet policy of territorial expansion, among other factors.

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Holocaust: Mass Murder
публикация №1190295452

20 сентября 2007 Научная цифровая библиотека ПОРТАЛУС - Soviet Russia (1917-53)

Аннотация от автора: The massive loss of lives during World War II reflected less the direct effects of combat than its secondary consequences: famine, disease, privation, and not least outright murder. In Europe it began in Poland in 1939, as Soviet Russia and Nazi Germany collaborated to annihilate race and class enemies. In 1940, when Russia occupied the Baltic states, the executions and deportations were on such a scale that many survivors subsequently welcomed the Germans as liberators--and then took up arms to seek revenge against their former persecutors...

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Allied Invasion of France (D-Day), 1944
публикация №1190295321

20 сентября 2007 Научная цифровая библиотека ПОРТАЛУС - Soviet Russia (1917-53)

Аннотация от автора: As early as July 1941 a mortally threatened Soviet Union was calling for a "second front"--an Anglo-American invasion of Europe across the English Channel. The appeal was sufficiently compelling that Winston Churchill and Franklin D. Roosevelt made successive attempts to present the invasions of North Africa in 1942 and Italy in 1943 as meeting Soviet criteria. Joseph Stalin was unimpressed, and since then Soviet and post-Soviet historiography has stated or implied that the Western allies delayed invading the European continent unnecessarily, if not hoping to weaken the U.S.S.R. then to spare the lives of their own men at the expense of Russia's.
The most common rejoinder is that Russia had no comprehension of the difficulties involved in preparing and mounting a cross-Channel invasion against an alert and competent defense. It has been suggested that the invasion could have been mounted in the summer of 1943 with good chances of success given the weakness of German forces and defenses compared to 1944. This hypothesis, however, depending heavily on statistical comparisons, has found little support beyond its originators. D-Day remains best understood as a one-time operation, absorbing such a high percentage of U.S. and British material and psychological resources that it could not be undertaken without near-absolute chances of success...

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Soviet Control in Eastern and Central Europe. Could a "Finland" status have been attained for some eastern and central European states?
публикация №1190295216

20 сентября 2007 Научная цифровая библиотека ПОРТАЛУС - Soviet Russia (1917-53)

Аннотация от автора: Finland became independent from Russia in 1917, but relations with Russia (and its successor, the Soviet Union) remained uneasy. In 1939, following the signing of the Nazi-Soviet Nonaggression Pact (also known as the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact), in which the Baltic states of Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia were given to the Soviet Union, the Soviets invaded eastern Finland. In the Winter War that ensued, the outnumbered Finns fought courageously, but in March 1940 they were forced to cede a large area of southeastern Finland to the Soviets in the Treaty of Moscow. When Germany invaded the Soviet Union in June 1941, the Finns resumed hostilities, hoping to reclaim the territory they had lost earlier. Finland also adopted a pro-German foreign policy, and Finnish president Risto Ryti refused to change his position even as the tide of the Second World War turned against Germany.
Finland emerged from the war with its freedom of action in foreign policy and defense matters curtailed. Although independent, Finland was within the Soviet sphere of influence, leading it to sign a treaty with the Soviet Union in which it promised to remain neutral in the struggle between East and West. Finland did not join the European Recovery Plan (the Marshall Plan), the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), or other initiatives or organizations that the Soviets deemed hostile...

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European Socialists during World War I
публикация №1190294742

20 сентября 2007 Научная цифровая библиотека ПОРТАЛУС - Soviet Russia (1917-53)

Аннотация от автора: The outbreak of war in August 1914 came as a seismic shock to a European Left that was well on its way to making terms in practice with the capitalist society it continued to challenge in principle. Anarchism and Anarcho- Syndicalism, influential for decades in Spain, Italy, and France, was in retreat before states whose intelligence and security services were proving all too capable of coping with "propaganda of the deed." Marxism had been more successful, both in organizing workers and securing representation in the parliamentary systems of the Continent...

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The Russian Revolution, 1881-1939
публикация №1190294694

20 сентября 2007 Научная цифровая библиотека ПОРТАЛУС - Soviet Russia (1917-53)

Аннотация от автора: The Russian Revolution fundamentally transformed the political, economic, and sociological landscape of one of the world's largest and most populous countries. The episode dramatically altered the shape and character of international relations across the globe during the twentieth century as well, and would serve as an inspiration for future revolutionary groups...

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Russian Civil War (1918-1921), 1918-1921
публикация №1190294659

20 сентября 2007 Научная цифровая библиотека ПОРТАЛУС - Soviet Russia (1917-53)

Аннотация от автора: Counterrevolutionary activity aimed at restoring representative government...

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Lenin and the Communists Impose the "Red Terror", 1917-1924
публикация №1190294595

20 сентября 2007 Научная цифровая библиотека ПОРТАЛУС - Soviet Russia (1917-53)

Аннотация от автора: The Bolsheviks under Vladimir Ilich Lenin seized power in Russia and proceeded to eliminate opposition by ruthless repression and violation of fundamental human rights...

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