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RUSSIA (TOPICS) есть новые публикации за сегодня \\ 16.12.18



Russia as Part of the West
публикация №1188906701

04 сентября 2007 Александр Павлович Шиманский POLITICS

Аннотация от автора: British statesman Winston Churchill once famously referred to Russia as a "riddle wrapped in a mystery inside an enigma." The consternation expressed in his statement at least partly derived from the question of Russia's identity as a nation. For many observers, Russia is undeniably part of the West. A Christian nation since the conversion of its people in 988, Russia has been intimately tied to Europe by culture, trade, and diplomacy, as well as by faith. The basis for its laws and social organization, from the tsars through the communists to its current leaders, has shared many commonalities with the West. The development of its art, science, and philosophy had pronounced Western influences and went a long way toward influencing the West itself...

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Chechnya and Russia: A War of Succession
публикация №1188906480

04 сентября 2007 Александр Павлович Шиманский - Post-Soviet Russia

Аннотация от автора: In February 2000, Russian military forces retook the city of Grozny, capital of the breakaway republic of Chechnya. Chechen separatists, who had declared Chechnya's independence in 1991 from the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) as it was dissolving, fled once again into the surrounding Caucasus Mountains. Anxious to restore a sense of normality to the besieged capital, Russian officials quickly began to plan a government to replace the one established by Aslan Maskhadov who had been elected to the Chechen presidency in 1997 and who had also fled the capital. The recapture of Grozny, the capital of Chechnya, was a significant victory for Russia whose army had crossed into Chechnya in October 1999 and restarted a war that the outside world had hoped was ended three years earlier...

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Russia Agrees to Take the World's Nuclear Waste: But Where to Put it?
публикация №1188906364

04 сентября 2007 Александр Павлович Шиманский ARMED FORCES

Аннотация от автора: With already serious nuclear waste problems and a very poor track record in nuclear safety, Russia has approved plans to import more spent nuclear waste from elsewhere in the world for reprocessing. Russia claims that it will use the profits to clean up its considerable nuclear waste problem, but there is worldwide skepticism about its ability to do so and fear of the consequences for the planet if its efforts are unsuccessful...

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Alexander, I, Tsar of Russia (1777-1825)
публикация №1188906148

04 сентября 2007 Александр Павлович Шиманский - Imperial Russia

Аннотация от автора: Russian Tsar who defeated Napoleon and attempted to bring constitutional reforms to his country...

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Collapse of Tsarist Russia
публикация №1188906049

04 сентября 2007 Александр Павлович Шиманский - Imperial Russia

Аннотация от автора: By early 1917 the military defeats and social strains of World War I had created a political crisis in Imperial Russia. Over several unseasonably warm days in February and March of that year, angry crowds gathered in the capital of Petrograd (formerly and once again St. Petersburg), and the capital garrison refused to suppress the disturbances. Isolated at military headquarters near the front, Tsar Nicholas II did not realize the gravity of the situation until too late. He waited too long to return to the seat of his government and was forced to abdicate in Pskov, where his train was diverted...

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Imperial Russia's Diplomatic Goals in World War I
публикация №1188905942

04 сентября 2007 Александр Павлович Шиманский - Imperial Russia

Аннотация от автора: Like all the combatant powers at the onset of World War I, Russia expected to prevail in the conflict and developed comprehensive and far-reaching war aims. Many of these goals were long-standing. Since the eighteenth century, Russia had been trying to seize the Turkish Straits, its only access to the Mediterranean Sea and rich southern trade routes. Russian interests in Central Europe had moved from defending its western borders in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries to expanding into Polish territory in the eighteenth and attempting to create a hegemony over the Balkans in the nineteenth...

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Free to Speak? Establishing a Free Press in Russia
публикация №1188905750

04 сентября 2007 Александр Павлович Шиманский POLITICS

Аннотация от автора: the collapse of the Soviet Union. The Russian media began to actively report on the government and to question its actions. When President Vladimir Putin succeeded Boris Yeltsin into office, he implemented restrictions on the media that greatly reduced their freedoms. Putin also began to reinstate government controls over the media and to prosecute media companies and owners who did not comply...

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WWI and the Dissolution of Imperial Russia
публикация №1188905500

04 сентября 2007 Александр Павлович Шиманский - Imperial Russia

Аннотация от автора: The first two years of the Great War strained tsarist Russia to its breaking point. Vladimir Lenin described the war as massively accelerating the process of revolution, and after nearly a century of hindsight it is difficult to establish a credible counterfactual scenario in which Russia might have avoided at least something along the lines of the February 1916 collapse of the monarchy. Was the war itself the cause of the collapse of Imperial Russia? Or did the war merely exacerbate fundamental weaknesses that had been previously demonstrated yet never effectively addressed?..

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Witte and Industrialization in Revolutionary Russia
публикация №1188905401

04 сентября 2007 Александр Павлович Шиманский - Imperial Russia

Аннотация от автора: Count Sergei Iul'evich Witte oversaw Russia's transition economy from 1892 to 1903. As finance minister, Witte pushed for greater exports, ambitious industrialization, and large foreign loans. He hoped to modernize Russia and make it competitive with other great powers. These policies by and large continued after Witte was dismissed in 1903 and were expanded by Witte when he returned to government as premier in 1905-1906, and by his successors...

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Social Class in Late Imperial Russia
публикация №1188905279

04 сентября 2007 Александр Павлович Шиманский - Imperial Russia

Аннотация от автора: A traditional explanation for the success of the Bolshevik coup in November 1917 is the polarization of Russian society during the last decades of the empire. As Russia underwent rapid industrialization and urbanization--with the growth of a capital-controlling middle class and the proliferation of poor industrial workers--the traditional agrarian economy of Russia and the organization of its society into sosloviia (estates) was breaking down and becoming replaced with an unstable capitalist system. For some scholars, the classical Marxist paradigm of a radicalized proletariat seizing power from an oppressive bourgeoisie has best explained the Russian Revolution. According to this argument, no social conciliation was possible, and the Bolshevik Revolution of 1917 was inevitable...

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