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Culture and Revolution in Revolutionary Russia. Was Russian cultural expression subsumed by politics during the revolutionary era?
публикация №1190293988

20 сентября 2007 Научная цифровая библиотека ПОРТАЛУС - Soviet Russia (1917-53)

Аннотация от автора: An old cliché about Russia holds that its culture and politics are and have always been (at least in modern times) inseparably bound. Lacking parliaments, civil institutions, civic freedoms, and pluralistic environments, Russians' sole opportunity to articulate political ideas was within the only realm where they enjoyed relative freedom, thought and creativity. Russian literature, the argument holds, was full of social ideas about peasants, women, democracy, socialism, reaction, conservatism, and all other sorts of matters that Russians could discuss but never do much about.
Recent research challenges this assumption. Far from dominating the arts and creative life, politics seems to have developed, particularly in the late imperial era, in isolation from Russian cultural life. Plays, operas, ballets, and newer forms such as operetta, cabaret, vaudeville, film, and the circus were largely apolitical in content, geared toward audiences who either had little stake in the system or remained apathetic toward it or, if they cared about politics at all, preferred to keep it separate from entertainment. Theaters and cinemas were turning into places of diversion and relaxation. This chapter assesses the merits of both arguments...

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Novgorod
публикация №1190293864

20 сентября 2007 Научная цифровая библиотека ПОРТАЛУС SUBDIVISIONS

Аннотация от автора: Novgorod, a contraction for novyi gorod (new town), was the most important settlement in the early history of the north Russian plain. Though the Russian Primary Chronicle speaks of the existence of Novgorod in the middle of the ninth century, extensive archaeological excavations conducted since the end of World War II have found no evidence of artifacts datable prior to the mid tenth century. The name of "new town" has persuaded historians to believe in an earlier establishment, an "old town," but no consensus exists for the location of the earlier foundation...

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Smolensk
публикация №1190293775

20 сентября 2007 Научная цифровая библиотека ПОРТАЛУС SUBDIVISIONS

Аннотация от автора: Smolensk, city in the western part of the Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic, close to Belorussia; the administrative center of Smolensk Oblast (district) and one of the oldest Russian cities. Jews lived in Smolensk from the fifteenth century. Before World War II more than 13,000 Jews lived there, out of a total population of 156,677...

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Krasnodar
публикация №1190293678

20 сентября 2007 Научная цифровая библиотека ПОРТАЛУС SUBDIVISIONS

Аннотация от автора: Krasnodar, capital of Krasnodar Krai (territory) in Northern Caucasia, in the Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic. In 1926 the total population of Krasnodar was about 174,000 and its Jewish population was 1,746, which presumably had increased by 1941. By the time the city was occupied by the Nazis on August 9, 1942, thousands of refugees from the southern part of the Ukraine and the Crimea, Jews and non-Jews, had flocked into Krasnodar, in an effort to escape from the Germans...

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Russia and the Soviet Union (from Part 1: National and Regional Dimensions)
публикация №1190293520

20 сентября 2007 Научная цифровая библиотека ПОРТАЛУС - Language and religion

Аннотация от автора: Russian and Soviet arms control and disarmament policies have been guided by several unique and enduring themes. Though often not stated explicitly, these themes have consistently had an impact on disarmament policy formulation, and its goals and expectations, throughout the history of the region...

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Amphibious Forces Of Russia
публикация №1190293464

20 сентября 2007 Научная цифровая библиотека ПОРТАЛУС ARMED FORCES

Аннотация от автора: Some 37 nations of the world maintain military forces that possess the capability to conduct one or more types of amphibious operations. Most of those forces are comparatively small in number and limited in capability. The U.S. Marine Corps represents the largest amphibious force in the world by a large margin. Forces of other countries are modest and, in general, do not have the ambitious tasks that are assigned to the U.S. force...

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Yukagir
публикация №1190293380

20 сентября 2007 Научная цифровая библиотека ПОРТАЛУС DEMOGRAPHICS

Аннотация от автора: The Yukagir are one of the smallest minorities in the former USSR. Territorially, the Yukagir are subdivided into two groups: the Taiga group lives in the Upper Kolyma District of the Yakut Republic and in the Saimanchanskoi District of Magadan Province along the tributaries of the Kolyma River. The Tundra Yukagir reside in the Lower Kolyma District of the Yakut Republic between the Kolyma and the Indigirka rivers. Both groups live among numerically predominant neighbors: Yakuts, Chukchee, Even, and Russians...

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Volga Tatars
публикация №1190293300

20 сентября 2007 Научная цифровая библиотека ПОРТАЛУС DEMOGRAPHICS

Аннотация от автора: The Volga Tatars are the westernmost of all Turkic ethnic groups living in the former Soviet Union. Among them, there are two major groups, the Kazan Tatars and the Mishars, who share a common literary language and culture despite ethnogenetic and linguistic particularities. The Volga Tatars live mainly in Tatarstan and Bashkirstan in Russia, but they can also be found in large numbers in other areas of Russia as well as in the republics of Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, and Kyrgyzstan in particular. As late as the second half of the nineteenth century, Volga Tatars preferred to identify themselves and to be identified by others as "Mösälman" (Muslims), in addition to using ethnonyms such as "Kazanlï," "Bulghar," and "Mishär." The Russians and other peoples identified them simply as "Tatars," a practice which often led to confusion, since Russians used the ethnonym to designate any Muslim of Turkic ethnic background living in European Russia and the Caucasus. The ethnonym "Tatar" was less than universally embraced because the popular as well as official identification of the Volga Tatars with the Mongol Tatars of the thirteenth century was at the root of the stigma attached to it. The ethnonym "Tatar" was controversial then, a quality it retained into the 1990s, when glasnost and perestroika made possible the renewal of the ethnonymic debates. The name of their homeland has changed since the tenth century from "Bulghar" to "Kazan," "Idel-Ural," and "Tatarstan" or "Tataria." In the Soviet system, their titular republic was called Tatarstan Avtonomiyale Sovet Sotsialistik Respublikase. Tatarstan is presently part of the Russian Federation formed in 1992...

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Tuvans
публикация №1190292880

20 сентября 2007 Научная цифровая библиотека ПОРТАЛУС DEMOGRAPHICS

Аннотация от автора: Most of Tuva is contained today in the Tuvan Republic, one of eighteen republics in Russia. The Tuvan Republic comprises about 171,000 square kilometers. The capital is Kyzyl...

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Tsakhurs
публикация №1190292835

20 сентября 2007 Научная цифровая библиотека ПОРТАЛУС DEMOGRAPHICS

Аннотация от автора: The Tsakhurs live in the southwestern part of Daghestan (the Rutul District) and in northern Azerbaijan (the Zakatal and Kakh districts). The Daghestanian Tsakhurs occupy a territory that is closed off and difficult of access called Mountain Magal (on the upper reaches of the Samur River). Paths and an automobile road join them to their closest neighbors, the Rutuls and the Lezgins, and mountain passes over the main Caucasus chain link them to Azerbaijan. The climate is cold: there are snowdrifts and avalanches in the winter, whereas in the summer the rivers sometimes flood. The Azerbaijan Tsakhurs occupy the foothills and plains, areas which have a temperate climate, fertile soil, and good communications...

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