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RUSSIA (TOPICS) есть новые публикации за сегодня \\ 16.12.18



Soviet Diplomatic Policy in the 1920s
публикация №1190294341

20 сентября 2007 Александр Павлович Шиманский - Foreign relations

Аннотация от автора: With the end of the Russian Civil War, the Bolsheviks found themselves masters of their land. How the first communist government would relate to the rest of the world remained a mystery, however. Prerevolutionary theorists and ideologues--including the new state's leader Vladimir Lenin--believed that a successful revolution in Russia would galvanize the proletarians of the world to emulate the Bolsheviks and spread communism worldwide. Western leaders feared a Red victory in the Civil War for precisely that reason. As internal stability returned to Russia, its intentions remained a mystery to the rest of the world, and they are still a subject of debate among historians...

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Russian Working Class in Revolutionary Russia
публикация №1190294295

20 сентября 2007 Александр Павлович Шиманский - Soviet Russia (1917-53)

Аннотация от автора: This chapter evaluates the validity of the claim made by the Soviet regime and its sympathizers that the Bolshevik Revolution enjoyed the nearly unanimous support of Russia's workers. On the one hand, worker support for Bolshevism seems self-evident. Workers wanted an end to World War I, the defense of the more democratic revolution of February 1917, control of their factories, higher standards of living, and opportunities for social and education advancement. Honestly or not, the Bolsheviks made many promises and offered the greatest degree of credibility in these areas. Their opponents did not, or talked about postponing their resolution to a future time. Workers, guided by their interests, supported the Bolsheviks in a manner demonstrated by Bolshevik majorities in soviets, by mass voluntarism for the Red Guards, Red Army, and new bureaucracy, and by other actions taken in defense of the revolution...

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Relation of Terrorism in Revolutionary Russia to Present-Day Terrorism
публикация №1190294172

20 сентября 2007 Александр Павлович Шиманский ARMED FORCES

Аннотация от автора: Since 11 September 2001 the specter of terrorism has pushed study of the phenomenon into the forefront of modern life. This chapter assesses its Russian roots. For many scholars the methods, strategies, and objectives of twenty-first-century terrorists descend in a direct line from the violent revolutionary movements that plagued Russia in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. The expectation that the unpredictable use of lethal force would create major political change; organization into clandestine cells and other underground formations; and reliance on simple technologies all had Russian precedents and more or less direct linkages...

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Early Soviet Economy. Was the New Economic Policy (NEP) effective in promoting recovery from war and revolution?
публикация №1190294037

20 сентября 2007 Александр Павлович Шиманский - Soviet Russia (1917-53)

Аннотация от автора: In the wake of the carnage and chaos caused by revolution and civil war, the Bolsheviks took control of Russia and looked toward economic reform to foster national recovery. Approved by the Tenth Congress of the Soviet Communist Party in March 1921, the New Economic Policy (NEP) allowed for a light private industry, a free service sector, limited consumer industry, and free domestic trade in agricultural products. The idea behind NEP was to promote economic recovery so that Russia's evolution to socialism and communism could rest on firm material foundations...

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Culture and Revolution in Revolutionary Russia. Was Russian cultural expression subsumed by politics during the revolutionary era?
публикация №1190293988

20 сентября 2007 Александр Павлович Шиманский - Soviet Russia (1917-53)

Аннотация от автора: An old cliché about Russia holds that its culture and politics are and have always been (at least in modern times) inseparably bound. Lacking parliaments, civil institutions, civic freedoms, and pluralistic environments, Russians' sole opportunity to articulate political ideas was within the only realm where they enjoyed relative freedom, thought and creativity. Russian literature, the argument holds, was full of social ideas about peasants, women, democracy, socialism, reaction, conservatism, and all other sorts of matters that Russians could discuss but never do much about.
Recent research challenges this assumption. Far from dominating the arts and creative life, politics seems to have developed, particularly in the late imperial era, in isolation from Russian cultural life. Plays, operas, ballets, and newer forms such as operetta, cabaret, vaudeville, film, and the circus were largely apolitical in content, geared toward audiences who either had little stake in the system or remained apathetic toward it or, if they cared about politics at all, preferred to keep it separate from entertainment. Theaters and cinemas were turning into places of diversion and relaxation. This chapter assesses the merits of both arguments...

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Novgorod
публикация №1190293864

20 сентября 2007 Александр Павлович Шиманский SUBDIVISIONS

Аннотация от автора: Novgorod, a contraction for novyi gorod (new town), was the most important settlement in the early history of the north Russian plain. Though the Russian Primary Chronicle speaks of the existence of Novgorod in the middle of the ninth century, extensive archaeological excavations conducted since the end of World War II have found no evidence of artifacts datable prior to the mid tenth century. The name of "new town" has persuaded historians to believe in an earlier establishment, an "old town," but no consensus exists for the location of the earlier foundation...

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Smolensk
публикация №1190293775

20 сентября 2007 Александр Павлович Шиманский SUBDIVISIONS

Аннотация от автора: Smolensk, city in the western part of the Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic, close to Belorussia; the administrative center of Smolensk Oblast (district) and one of the oldest Russian cities. Jews lived in Smolensk from the fifteenth century. Before World War II more than 13,000 Jews lived there, out of a total population of 156,677...

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Krasnodar
публикация №1190293678

20 сентября 2007 Александр Павлович Шиманский SUBDIVISIONS

Аннотация от автора: Krasnodar, capital of Krasnodar Krai (territory) in Northern Caucasia, in the Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic. In 1926 the total population of Krasnodar was about 174,000 and its Jewish population was 1,746, which presumably had increased by 1941. By the time the city was occupied by the Nazis on August 9, 1942, thousands of refugees from the southern part of the Ukraine and the Crimea, Jews and non-Jews, had flocked into Krasnodar, in an effort to escape from the Germans...

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Russia and the Soviet Union (from Part 1: National and Regional Dimensions)
публикация №1190293520

20 сентября 2007 Александр Павлович Шиманский - Language and religion

Аннотация от автора: Russian and Soviet arms control and disarmament policies have been guided by several unique and enduring themes. Though often not stated explicitly, these themes have consistently had an impact on disarmament policy formulation, and its goals and expectations, throughout the history of the region...

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Amphibious Forces Of Russia
публикация №1190293464

20 сентября 2007 Александр Павлович Шиманский ARMED FORCES

Аннотация от автора: Some 37 nations of the world maintain military forces that possess the capability to conduct one or more types of amphibious operations. Most of those forces are comparatively small in number and limited in capability. The U.S. Marine Corps represents the largest amphibious force in the world by a large margin. Forces of other countries are modest and, in general, do not have the ambitious tasks that are assigned to the U.S. force...

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