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First Meeting of the Duma (Russian Parliament Convenes), May 10, 1906-July 21, 1906 [historical document]
публикация №1189693534

13 сентября 2007 Александр Павлович Шиманский - Imperial Russia

Аннотация от автора: First meeting of Russian representative assembly...

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Yuri Luzhkov
публикация №1189693392

13 сентября 2007 Александр Павлович Шиманский FAMOUS RUSSIANS

Аннотация от автора: Russian politician Yuri Luzhkov (born 1936) proved to be a popular mayor of Moscow. He ushered in reforms to the economy and infrastructure that increased the prosperity of the nation's capital...

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Alexander Ivanovich Lebed
публикация №1189693304

13 сентября 2007 Александр Павлович Шиманский FAMOUS RUSSIANS

Аннотация от автора: A former paratrooper in the Russian Army, General Alexander Lebed (born 1950) served briefly as Russia's national security chief under president Boris Yeltsin before moving on to become one of Yeltsin's most probable successors. He is regarded as a fierce nationalist and an outspoken critic of corruption in Russian business and government...

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Anatoly Alexandrovich Sobchak
публикация №1189693246

13 сентября 2007 Александр Павлович Шиманский FAMOUS RUSSIANS

Аннотация от автора: Russia, was elected mayor of St. Petersburg (formerly Leningrad) in 1990...

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Stalin and the Cold War
публикация №1189693158

13 сентября 2007 Александр Павлович Шиманский - Soviet Russia (1917-53)

Аннотация от автора: In principle, Joseph Stalin was probably as much in favor of keeping the wartime Grand Alliance of Britain, Russia, and the United States in place as were his postwar counterparts Clement Attlee and Harry S Truman. Four years as a battleground had left the Soviet Union devastated economically, disrupted administratively, and unsettled ideologically. Stalin had mobilized domestic support for the war in part by turning to nationalism and religion. Some of the more successful Red Army generals had begun the war in the gulag archipelago, victims of the purges of the 1930s.
Would the Soviet dictator continue the process of opening his society and loosening its restraints? That question was answered almost immediately in domestic contexts, as returned prisoners of war (POWs) were shipped en masse to labor camps and "enemies of the people" once again faced sham trials or administrative punishment. Thoughts of an economy reconfigured to meet civilian needs vanished as the arms factories ran overtime and rationing of all sorts continued. This tightening of domestic belts did not inevitably prefigure increased international tension. Stalin, however, made no secret even during World War II of his conviction that once common enemies were removed, the hostility between communism and capitalism would equally shape policies and behaviors...

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German Invasion of the Soviet Union, 1941
публикация №1189693095

13 сентября 2007 Александр Павлович Шиманский - Soviet Russia (1917-53)

Аннотация от автора: Russia proved for Adolf Hitler what Spain was for Napoleon Bonaparte between 1808 and 1813--a running sore that drained resources and gave nothing back. Whether Operation Barbarossa was the legitimate strategic option or an ideologically motivated exercise in genocide, the question remains whether Hitler would have been better advised to explore a Middle Eastern option. Hitler's trans-Atlantic ambitions depended on eventually acquiring bases on the North African coast. If Britain could not be directly invaded, then perhaps cutting its Mediterranean "lifeline" might bring the island empire to reason. More concretely, given what field marshal Erwin Rommel achieved in North Africa with Germany's military leftovers, the consequences of adding even a half dozen mobile divisions to his order of battle continues to engage war gamers and counterfactualists.
Analyzed at closer range, the Mediterranean scenario had significant drawbacks as well as inviting possibilities. Diplomatically, it involved balancing the claims and ambitions of Italy, Spain, and Vichy France--a task that proved well beyond the capacities of the Führer and his officials. Spain refused to participate without guaranteed compensation from France's colonial empire--on which Benito Mussolini also had designs. France was determined to maintain its position in North Africa. The resulting imbroglios were never resolved--only put on the back burner when Hitler turned toward Russia...

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Collapse of the Soviet Union
публикация №1188915416

04 сентября 2007 Александр Павлович Шиманский - Soviet Russia (1985-91)

Аннотация от автора: The collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 and its reconfiguration as a congeries of middle-sized regional powers generated as much anxiety as gratification among diplomats, soldiers, politicians, and intellectuals in the rest of the world. In forty years the Cold War had become familiar enough to seem the natural order of things. Even the threat of thermonuclear conflict was increasingly an abstraction. Particularly in hindsight, the bipolarity that developed after 1947 seemed accompanied by clarity, at least on major issues. Now every state faced a prospect of autonomy that tended to be more frightening than reassuring...

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German Occupation of Eastern Europe during World War I
публикация №1188915359

04 сентября 2007 Александр Павлович Шиманский - Imperial Russia

Аннотация от автора: As the Eastern Front stabilized after the great battles of 1915, grandiose projects of exploitation increasingly appeared in memoranda at the highest levels of the government and the army. A Central European customs union, new thrones in the Baltic states and Poland, German colonization of lands vacated by wartime migrations--all seemed possible. German general Erich Ludendorff suggested annexations of land ranging as far east as the Caspian Sea. The discourse reflected a developed consciousness of the East as a source of both current German power and endless possibilities for the future...

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Disputed Drilling Rights in the Caspian Sea
публикация №1188915293

04 сентября 2007 Александр Павлович Шиманский - Foreign relations

Аннотация от автора: The Caspian Sea seabed contains many unexplored and undeveloped oil and gas reserves. These reserves are potentially worth billions of dollars to the nations and companies that develop them. Although some development is underway, legal wrangling by the five Caspian Sea border nations over who owns the reserves has held up production and led to intense negotiations over the sea's future.

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Austria-Hungary in 1914
публикация №1188915232

04 сентября 2007 Александр Павлович Шиманский - Imperial Russia

Аннотация от автора: Long described in the historiography of the Great War as a German cat's-paw, Austria-Hungary is being restored to the status of an independent actor in the diplomacy that led up to the outbreak of hostilities. Since the Bosnian Crisis (1908), the Dual Monarchy's viability was being increasingly questioned. Austria was under increasing economic pressure in the Near East even from its ostensible ally, Germany. British publicists and French diplomats pictured brave futures for the Slavs of southeastern Europe once the Habsburg Empire should disappear. The increasingly strident claims of Austria that its great-power status was being ignored went overlooked--with few questions as to what might happen should Austria not accept its assigned fate and merely fade away...

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