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Topography Of Russia

Дата публикации: 04 сентября 2007
Публикатор: Александр Павлович Шиманский
Рубрика: RUSSIA (TOPICS) - Topography →
Источник: (c) http://russia.by
Номер публикации: №1188909156 / Жалобы? Ошибка? Выделите проблемный текст и нажмите CTRL+ENTER!


From west to east, the country can be roughly divided into five large geographic regions: the Great European Plain, the Ural Mountains, the West Siberian Plain, the Central Siberian Plateau, and the mountains of the northeast and southeast. The Great European and West Siberian Plains contain a variety of terrain, including grasslands and farmlands as well as forests, swamps, and large regions of tundra. The Caucasus Mountains, located between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea at the southwest of the Great European Plain, are divided into two chains separated by lowlands. The Caucasus Mountains form the border with Russia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia and mark the boundary between Asia to the south and Europe to the north. The highest peak in the Caucasus Mountains is the extinct volcano Mt. Elbrus (5,642 m/18,510 ft); this is also the highest peak in Russia and Europe. The lowest point in Russia is at the Caspian Sea, 28 m (92 ft) below sea level. The Caspian Sea is the world's largest lake.

The plains are divided by the Ural Mountains, which define the boundary between Asia on the east and Europe on the west. They extend about 2,100 km (1,300 mi) from the Arctic Ocean to the northern border of Kazakhstan; the highest point in the Urals is Mt. Narodnaya at 1,894 m (6,212 ft). The Central Siberian Plateau ranges in height from 500-700 m (1,600-2,300 ft). A number of rivers and deep canyons stretch across this area. The highest mountains of the eastern region are the Altay Shan, which reach a peak of 4,619 m (15,157 ft) at Mt. Pelukha. The other eastern mountain regions average less than 3,048 m (10,000 ft) in height.

The longest river in Russia is the Ob, which stretches through the West Siberian Plain to the Arctic Ocean for a length of 5,410 km (3,362 mi). The most important river commercially is the Volga, which stretches for 3,689 km (2,293 mi) through the Great European Plain to the Caspian Sea. The Volga is the longest river in Europe. The Dnieper is another important river in this region. The Amur River flows along the southeast border of the country into the Pacific. The largest lake in Russia is Lake Baikal (Ozero Baykal--30,510 sq km/11.870 sq mi), located in the southern plateau region.

Despite its size, only a small percentage of Russia's land is arable, with much of it too far north for cultivation.

Most of western Russia is located on the Eurasian Tectonic Plate, with seismic activity occurring frequently in the Caucasus Mountains. The eastern coast lies on the North American Plate near the boundary with the Pacific Plate. This eastern coast is part of the "Ring of Fire," a seismically active band surrounding the Pacific Ocean. While many of the resulting earthquakes are moderate (below 6.0 magnitude on the Richter scale), more severe quakes are not uncommon. In 2003, a 6.8 magnitude quake occurred near Primorye in July. In September of the same year, a 7.3 magnitude quake occurred along the Xinjiang border region; in October a 6.7 magnitude quake hit in southwestern Siberia; and in December another 6.7 quake hit at Komandorskiye Ostrova. On 10 June 2004, a 6.9 magnitude quake occurred at the Kamchatka Peninsula (Poluostrov Kamchatka).

Опубликовано 04 сентября 2007 года




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