Yiddish language (идиш - язык европейских евреев) На фото: Yiddish language (идиш - язык европейских евреев), автор: admin

Публикация №1045755472 20 февраля 2003

Yiddish language is a language of European Jews and their descendants. Yiddish has been the language of the Ashkenazim for about 1,000 years. The Ashkenazim are Jews primarily of central and eastern European origin. Yiddish is generally classified as a Germanic language, like English, German, Dutch, and the Scandinavian tongues--Icelandic, Danish, Norwegian, and Swedish. However, Yiddish is written in Hebrew characters from right to left like Hebrew and Aramaic, two Semitic languages used by the Jews...

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Yiddish literature (еврейская литература) На фото: Yiddish literature (еврейская литература), автор: admin

Публикация №1045755390 20 февраля 2003

Yiddish literature is the literature of Jews who write and speak the Yiddish language. Yiddish literature originated in the late 1200's and reached its peak in the late 1800's and early 1900's...

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Yoga (Йога) На фото: Yoga (Йога), автор: admin

Публикация №1045755351 20 февраля 2003

Yoga is a term that has two meanings. It is both (1) a school of thought in the Hindu religion and (2) a system of mental and physical exercise developed by that school. Followers of the yoga school, who are called yogis or yogins, use yoga exercise to achieve their goal of isolation of the soul from the body and mind. Many non-Hindus in Western countries practice some form of yoga exercise in hope of improving their health and achieving peace of mind. The word yoga means discipline in Sanskrit, the classical language of India...

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Zappa, Frank (1940-1993) I American rock artist (Франк Заппа, американский музыкант) На фото: Zappa, Frank (1940-1993) I American rock artist (Франк Заппа, американский музыкант), автор: admin

Публикация №1045755176 20 февраля 2003

Zappa, Frank (1940-1993), was one of the most creative and versatile personalities in the history of American rock music. Zappa was a composer, bandleader, and guitarist. Although he was one of the major innovators of rock music, he also attempted to blend jazz and classical music. Zappa performed much of his work through his band, the Mothers of Invention, a shifting group of musicians that he led for many years...

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Zole Emil | French writer (Эмиль Золя, французский писатель) На фото: Zole Emil | French writer (Эмиль Золя, французский писатель), автор: admin

Публикация №1045755089 20 февраля 2003

Zola, pronounced ZOH luh, Emile, pronounced ay MEEL (1840-1902), made naturalism the leading form of literature in France in the late 1800's. He described life as he saw it, and his books and his life demonstrate his courage, intelligence, and sense of justice. Zola's open letter J'accuse (1898) helped win a new trial for Alfred Dreyfus, a French army officer unjustly convicted of spying. Zola was convicted of libel after publication of the letter. He fled to England for a year, but he later became a national hero for his part in the affair. Zola also tried to win acceptance for artist Edouard Manet and other impressionist painters who broke with artistic tradition...

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World War I (1914-1918) На фото: World War I (1914-1918), автор: admin

Публикация №1045440253 17 февраля 2003

World War I (1914-1918) involved more countries and caused greater destruction than any other war except World War II (1939-1945). An assassin's bullets set off the war, and a system of military alliances (agreements) plunged the main European powers into the fight. Each side expected quick victory. But the war lasted four years and took the lives of nearly 10 million troops...

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World War II (1939-1945) На фото: World War II (1939-1945), автор: admin

Публикация №1045439847 17 февраля 2003

World War II (1939-1945) killed more people, destroyed more property, disrupted more lives, and probably had more far-reaching consequences than any other war in history. It brought about the downfall of Western Europe as the center of world power and led to the rise of the Soviet Union. The development of the atomic bomb during the war opened the nuclear age...

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Independent Belarus На фото: Independent Belarus, автор: admin

Публикация №1045438594 17 февраля 2003

Following the August 1991 coup d'etat (see Glossary) in Moscow and declarations of independence by Estonia, Latvia, and Ukraine, the Supreme Soviet in Minsk declared the independence of Belarus on August 25, 1991, by giving its Declaration of State Sovereignty the status of a constitutional document and renaming the country the Republic of Belarus...

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Belarus in World War II На фото: Belarus in World War II, автор: admin

Публикация №1045438528 17 февраля 2003

Germany attacked Poland on September 1, 1939. Two and onehalf weeks later, Soviet troops moved into the western portions of Belorussia and Ukraine. Ignorant of, or disbelieving the existence of, mass persecutions under Stalin, most Belorussians welcomed the Red Army, only to learn quickly of the harsh reality of communism. Arrests and deportations were common, and the socalled flourishing of national culture was strictly circumscribed by the ideological and political goals of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU--see Glossary). About 300,000 persons were deported from western Belorussia to Soviet labor camps between September 1939 and June 1941, when Germany attacked the Soviet Union...

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Belarus: th First World War and Revolution На фото: Belarus: th First World War and Revolution, автор: admin

Публикация №1045438483 17 февраля 2003

The outbreak of World War I in 1914 turned Belorussia into a zone of strict martial law, military operations, and great destruction. Large German and Russian armies fought fiercely and caused the expulsion or departure of more than 1 million civilians from the country. The Russian government's inept war efforts and ineffective economic policies prompted high food prices, shortages of goods, and many needless deaths in the war. Discontent in the cities and the countryside spread, leading to strikes, riots, and the eventual downfall of the tsarist government...

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