ZURICH () [ ]
1125564029

01 2005 Best topics

: Zurich, pronounced ZUR ihk (pop. 365,043; met. area pop. 940,180), is the largest city in Switzerland and the capital of the canton (state) of Zurich. It is a major manufacturing and commercial center. Zurich lies on Lake Zurich, along the Limmat River...

[] [ ]
1125563468

01 2005 Best topics

: Zworykin, pronounced ZWAWR uh kihn, Vladimir Kosma, pronounced VLAD uh meer KAHZ muh, (1889-1982), was a Russian-born American physicist and electronics engineer. He was responsible for many advances in radio, television, and the electron microscope...

[ ] [ ]
1125563440

01 2005 Best topics

: Zwingli, pronounced ZWIHNG lee or TSVIHNG lee, Huldreich, pronounced HUL drykh (1484-1531), was a leader of the Protestant Reformation. His career centered in Switzerland, but he influenced the Reformation in Germany, the Netherlands, and England...

INDEPENDENT BELARUS
1125563407

01 2005 Best topics

: Following the August 1991 coup d'etat (see Glossary) in Moscow and declarations of independence by Estonia, Latvia, and Ukraine, the Supreme Soviet in Minsk declared the independence of Belarus on August 25, 1991, by giving its Declaration of State Sovereignty the status of a constitutional document and renaming the country the Republic of Belarus...

BELARUS: STALIN AND RUSSIFICATION
1125563351

01 2005 Best topics

: But the country's misery did not end in the summer of 1944, when the Red Army "liberated" it from the Nazis. Stalin ordered sweeping purges and mass deportations of local administrators and members of the CPSU, as well as those who had collaborated with the Nazis in any way, those who had spent the war in slave labor and prison camps in Germany and were now "ideologically contaminated" in Stalin's view, those who were suspected of antiSoviet sentiments, and those who were accused of "bourgeois nationalism." Only in 1971 did the Belorussian SSR return to its pre-World War II population level, but without its large Jewish populace...

BELARUS: WORLD WAR II
1125563314

01 2005 Best topics

: Germany attacked Poland on September 1, 1939. Two and onehalf weeks later, Soviet troops moved into the western portions of Belorussia and Ukraine. Ignorant of, or disbelieving the existence of, mass persecutions under Stalin, most Belorussians welcomed the Red Army, only to learn quickly of the harsh reality of communism. Arrests and deportations were common, and the socalled flourishing of national culture was strictly circumscribed by the ideological and political goals of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU--see Glossary). About 300,000 persons were deported from western Belorussia to Soviet labor camps between September 1939 and June 1941, when Germany attacked the Soviet Union...

BELARUS: WORLD WAR AND REVOLUTION
1125563278

01 2005 Best topics

: The outbreak of World War I in 1914 turned Belorussia into a zone of strict martial law, military operations, and great destruction. Large German and Russian armies fought fiercely and caused the expulsion or departure of more than 1 million civilians from the country. The Russian government's inept war efforts and ineffective economic policies prompted high food prices, shortages of goods, and many needless deaths in the war. Discontent in the cities and the countryside spread, leading to strikes, riots, and the eventual downfall of the tsarist government...

THE DEFENITION OF PUNISHMENT
1125563228

01 2005 Best topics

: Punishment has become an increasingly problematic and controversial category in the last forty years or so. Particular punishments such as death penalty have become of wider divisions. Hanging is a means to an end. It can not function as a deterrent. It would so function that certain criminals justly deserve to be executed, whatever the deterrent effect of the penalty. Prisons have become a focus of controversy. Libertarian lobby argues that prisons have failed, they serve no purpose but to degrade inmates and to breed hardened criminals and should be abolished. An economy-minded lobby calls for shorter sentences, reserving prisons for the most serious cases...

Yale University |
1045755837

20 2003 Best topics

: Yale University is a coeducational, privately endowed, nonsectarian school in New Haven, Connecticut. Chartered in 1701, Yale is the third oldest institution of higher learning in the United States. Only Harvard University and the College of William and Mary are older...

Yankee | ( )
1045755740

20 2003 Best topics

: People of other countries often call any person from the United States a Yankee. In the southern United States, the word Yankee means a Northerner, or someone who comes from north of Mason and Dixon's Line. But most of the people of the United States use the word Yankee to mean a New Englander...



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