Публикация №1125563314 01 сентября 2005

Germany attacked Poland on September 1, 1939. Two and onehalf weeks later, Soviet troops moved into the western portions of Belorussia and Ukraine. Ignorant of, or disbelieving the existence of, mass persecutions under Stalin, most Belorussians welcomed the Red Army, only to learn quickly of the harsh reality of communism. Arrests and deportations were common, and the socalled flourishing of national culture was strictly circumscribed by the ideological and political goals of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU--see Glossary). About 300,000 persons were deported from western Belorussia to Soviet labor camps between September 1939 and June 1941, when Germany attacked the Soviet Union...

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Публикация №1125563278 01 сентября 2005

The outbreak of World War I in 1914 turned Belorussia into a zone of strict martial law, military operations, and great destruction. Large German and Russian armies fought fiercely and caused the expulsion or departure of more than 1 million civilians from the country. The Russian government's inept war efforts and ineffective economic policies prompted high food prices, shortages of goods, and many needless deaths in the war. Discontent in the cities and the countryside spread, leading to strikes, riots, and the eventual downfall of the tsarist government...

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Публикация №1125563228 01 сентября 2005

Punishment has become an increasingly problematic and controversial category in the last forty years or so. Particular punishments such as death penalty have become of wider divisions. Hanging is a means to an end. It can not function as a deterrent. It would so function that certain criminals justly deserve to be executed, whatever the deterrent effect of the penalty. Prisons have become a focus of controversy. Libertarian lobby argues that prisons have failed, they serve no purpose but to degrade inmates and to breed hardened criminals and should be abolished. An economy-minded lobby calls for shorter sentences, reserving prisons for the most serious cases...

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Yale University | Йельский университет На фото: Yale University | Йельский университет, автор: admin

Публикация №1045755837 20 февраля 2003

Yale University is a coeducational, privately endowed, nonsectarian school in New Haven, Connecticut. Chartered in 1701, Yale is the third oldest institution of higher learning in the United States. Only Harvard University and the College of William and Mary are older...

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Yankee | Янки (население США) На фото: Yankee | Янки (население США), автор: admin

Публикация №1045755740 20 февраля 2003

People of other countries often call any person from the United States a Yankee. In the southern United States, the word Yankee means a Northerner, or someone who comes from north of Mason and Dixon's Line. But most of the people of the United States use the word Yankee to mean a New Englander...

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Песня американских пионеров "Yankee Doodle" На фото: Песня американских пионеров

Публикация №1045755637 20 февраля 2003

Yankee Doodle is a song that has been popular in the United States since the 1700's. Music historians disagree about the song's origin, but they know that its melody and words have changed over time. In 1767, American composer Andrew Barton used "Yankee Doodle" in his opera The Disappointment. The song must have been well known by that time because Barton did not write out the music. He simply directed the performers to sing his words to the tune of "Yankee Doodle" ...

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Yeats, William Butler (1865-1939), (Вильям Йетс, английский писатель) На фото: Yeats, William Butler (1865-1939), (Вильям Йетс, английский писатель), автор: admin

Публикация №1045755547 20 февраля 2003

Yeats, pronounced yayts, William Butler (1865-1939), an Irish poet and dramatist, won the 1923 Nobel Prize for literature. Many critics consider him the greatest poet of his time. Yeats led the Irish Literary Revival, a movement of the late 1800's and early 1900's that stimulated new appreciation of traditional Irish literature. The movement also encouraged the creation of works written in the spirit of Irish culture, as distinct from English culture...

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Yiddish language (идиш - язык европейских евреев) На фото: Yiddish language (идиш - язык европейских евреев), автор: admin

Публикация №1045755472 20 февраля 2003

Yiddish language is a language of European Jews and their descendants. Yiddish has been the language of the Ashkenazim for about 1,000 years. The Ashkenazim are Jews primarily of central and eastern European origin. Yiddish is generally classified as a Germanic language, like English, German, Dutch, and the Scandinavian tongues--Icelandic, Danish, Norwegian, and Swedish. However, Yiddish is written in Hebrew characters from right to left like Hebrew and Aramaic, two Semitic languages used by the Jews...

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Yiddish literature (еврейская литература) На фото: Yiddish literature (еврейская литература), автор: admin

Публикация №1045755390 20 февраля 2003

Yiddish literature is the literature of Jews who write and speak the Yiddish language. Yiddish literature originated in the late 1200's and reached its peak in the late 1800's and early 1900's...

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Yoga (Йога) На фото: Yoga (Йога), автор: admin

Публикация №1045755351 20 февраля 2003

Yoga is a term that has two meanings. It is both (1) a school of thought in the Hindu religion and (2) a system of mental and physical exercise developed by that school. Followers of the yoga school, who are called yogis or yogins, use yoga exercise to achieve their goal of isolation of the soul from the body and mind. Many non-Hindus in Western countries practice some form of yoga exercise in hope of improving their health and achieving peace of mind. The word yoga means discipline in Sanskrit, the classical language of India...

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