Romanov Murders На фото: Romanov Murders, автор: admin

Публикация №1188914468 04 сентября 2007

On the night of 16-17 July 1918, the former tsar Nicholas II, his family, and their servants were executed by Bolshevik forces in the Ural city of Ekaterinburg. Since the former tsar's abdication in March 1917, their fortunes had been uncertain. The royal family had been under house arrest in different parts of Russia at various times, and little attention had been paid to them. Their ultimate fate remained a mystery until 1991 when their remains were finally identified. The exact circumstances of their deaths are known in some detail, but responsibility has been relatively difficult to assign...

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Red Terror in Revolutionary Russia На фото: Red Terror in Revolutionary Russia, автор: admin

Публикация №1188914415 04 сентября 2007

Recent work on communism, including Stéphane Courtois's The Black Book of Communism: Crimes, Terror, Repression (1999), makes a strong case that terror was the only real means of ensuring stability and security for communist governments. In the Russian case, émigrés and other opponents of the Soviet regime have long repeated this argument. Terror, enforced by a secret police, concentration camps, arbitrary killings, and other coercive practices and institutions, helped ensure Bolshevik power...

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Imperial and Soviet Continuities На фото: Imperial and Soviet Continuities, автор: admin

Публикация №1188914363 04 сентября 2007

A leading argument about Russia, famously defended by the prominent scholar Richard Pipes, maintains that despite the revolutionary change the country experienced in 1917, little changed in practice in Russia's government and society. In both Imperial Russia and the Soviet Union, he suggests, the state was run by a managerial elite that favored autocratic philosophies and opposed independent initiative and institutions functioning within society. Both states kept up a secret police, a militarized society, government leadership in the economy, a rigid social structure, and other items that suggest more continuity than change...

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© Kievan Rus На фото: © Kievan Rus, автор: admin

Публикация №1188914298 04 сентября 2007

Kiev was the first state to arise among the East Slavs. Created during the second half of the ninth century, it was named for the city of Kiev on the right (or west) bank of the middle Dnieper River, where its grand princes resided from about 880 until the second quarter of the twelfth century. Although the Kievan state had fragmented into a series of virtually independent principalities by the mid twelfth century, these principalities, as a whole, are referred to as Kievan Rus until the time of the Mongol conquest (1236-1240)...

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Russia На фото: Russia, автор: admin

Публикация №1188914240 04 сентября 2007

Russia, one of the fifteen former republics in the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), joined ten other Soviet republics in dissolving the Union on 21 December 1991 when they agreed to form the new Commonwealth of Independent States. This dramatic end to the Soviet and Communist state followed several years of dynamic and unprecedented change. For several more years, relations among the members of the new Commonwealth and with the rest of the world are likely to continue to change. Over time, new structures and patterns will emerge in economics, trade and commerce, politics and government, finance, manufacturing, religion, and virtually all aspects of human life. New arrangements must be devised for dealing separately as sovereign states and as a Commonwealth with the world outside the boundaries of the former Soviet state. If the history of the Soviet Union since 1985 is any guide, we can expect dramatic surprises and dynamic change...

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Expansion Of Russia На фото: Expansion Of Russia, автор: admin

Публикация №1188914196 04 сентября 2007

Through marriage, inheritance, a lack of natural borders, an aggressive military policy, and great rivers that transversed huge expanses of land, Russia expanded from the environs of Moscow to become the largest and longest-lasting multinational empire in the world. The bulk of expansion came through wars, but there was always a strong current of natural expansion away from the autocratic center by social outcasts, adventurers, and merchants. Russian expansion was always cyclical, moving into a void, being pushed back, then recovering lost territory...

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Expansion Of Russia: Muscovy На фото: Expansion Of Russia: Muscovy, автор: admin

Публикация №1188914073 04 сентября 2007

The Grand Duchy of Muscovy was but one of several successor states of the Mongol Golden Horde claiming the right to dominate the steppes. Moscow conquered the Volga basin and the Baltic coast, and laid claim to Siberia in the sixteenth century. Russia's fortunes ebbed during the "Time of Troubles" as Sweden and Poland seized the western gains in the Baltic and Ukraine. The seventeenth century witnessed a constant struggle with Poland and Sweden to regain lost lands, and with the southern cossack bands to capture the Ukraine and the mouth of the Don River at Azov...

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Catherine, II, the Great На фото: Catherine, II, the Great, автор: admin

Публикация №1188913904 04 сентября 2007

Autocratic, astute, and dynamic empress who--guided by the teachings of the Enlightenment--ruled Russia during a period of unprecedented political growth...

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Sergei Yulevich Witte, 1849-1915 На фото: Sergei Yulevich Witte, 1849-1915, автор: admin

Публикация №1188913818 04 сентября 2007

Sergei Witte often expressed sympathy for the many non-Russians in his country. Jews, Poles, and other peoples who were not Russian or Orthodox Christian frequently faced discriminatory laws in the businesses, education, and government of the Russian Empire. But there were basic contradictions in Witte's political career. On the one hand, he held very progressive views and stood for abolishing laws that discriminated on the basis of ethnic origins. Such laws, he felt, hindered the growth of Russia's productivity. Yet this modern outlook contrasted with his admiration for the old traditions of the Russian monarchy, whose absolute powers were often the source of discriminatory laws in the first place. When the Russian emperor Alexander II was assassinated by terrorists in 1881, Witte briefly joined a secret society dedicated to seeking out and destroying terrorists...

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Slavery In Russia На фото: Slavery In Russia, автор: admin

Публикация №1188913769 04 сентября 2007

Slavery was a very important social institution in Rus' between, say, A.D. 800 and 1725. Initially, slaves were one of the "forest products" harvested by Vikings making their way on the "route from the Varangians to the Greeks," the Eastern European river route (from the Baltic Sea into the Neva to Lake Ladoga, to the Volkov, to the Shelon', to the Dnepr, into the Black Sea) between Sweden and Constaninople. The Vikings picked up slaves and hauled them (along with wax, honey, and furs) to Constantinople in exchange for luxury goods. No one knows the numbers of slaves there were after the formation of the Kievan Russian state (882-1132), but it is assumed that most of these slaves had come from raids on other non-Slavic people...

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