Foreign Trade In Russia На фото: Foreign Trade In Russia, автор: admin

Публикация №1188911959 04 сентября 2007

Principal exports have traditionally been oil, natural gas, minerals, military equipment and weapons, gold, shipping, and transport services. Principal imports include machinery and equipment, consumer goods, medicines, meat, grain, sugar, and semifinished metal products. Mainly because of high international oil prices, export revenue soared after 2000. Import growth picked up over the same period as a result of rising real incomes and real ruble appreciation. The trade surplus increased to $87 billion in 2004...

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Domestic Trade In Russia На фото: Domestic Trade In Russia, автор: admin

Публикация №1188911895 04 сентября 2007

A central marketplace is a common feature of urban areas in Russia. Outside of Moscow and St. Petersburg, small open markets and kiosks are the primary retail establishments. Nationwide distribution channels are still largely undefined...

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Taxation In Russia На фото: Taxation In Russia, автор: admin

Публикация №1188911854 04 сентября 2007

Russia's tax system has historically been confusing, inefficient, unwieldy, and overbearing. Businesses and individuals routinely fail to pay their taxes on time, if at all. The government's need for money to pay pensions and salaries fueled a proliferation of taxes, including a tax on people crossing Russia's borders, additional levies on freight, new transit fees, and a tax on yields from government securities. In 1996, 26 tax collectors were killed, six were kidnapped, and 41 had their homes burned down. In the first half of 1997, the government only collected 57% of its targeted tax revenues...

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Labor In Russia На фото: Labor In Russia, автор: admin

Публикация №1188911716 04 сентября 2007

In 2005, Russia's labor force was estimated at 74.22 million. As of 2004, it was estimated that agriculture accounted for 10.3% of the country's workforce, with 68.3% in the services sector, and 21.4% in industry. Although Russia's unemployment rate in 2005 was estimated at 7.6%, a considerable number of workers were underemployed...

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Foreign Investment To Russia На фото: Foreign Investment To Russia, автор: admin

Публикация №1188911683 04 сентября 2007

In September 1991, a foreign investment law promoting the transfer of capital, technology, and know-how went into effect. Nonresidents may acquire partial shareholdings or form wholly owned subsidiaries in Russia. Foreign firms may obtain licenses to exploit natural resources. Foreign investors can be exempted from import duties and export taxes, and there is limited relief from profits tax, varying by sector and region. However, foreign investors remain concerned with the overall business climate in Russia. Vague business laws, an incoherent tax system, crime and corruption in commercial transactions, and a weak commitment to reform continue to erode investor confidence...

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Insurance In Russia На фото: Insurance In Russia, автор: admin

Публикация №1188911650 04 сентября 2007

In 1993, a total of 1,524 Russian companies were licensed to sell insurance and another 750 companies had applied for licenses. However, fewer than 2% of the operating firms had assets over r100 million ($80,000), and premium volume for the first nine months of 1993 amounted to only 1.3% of the GDP (as compared with volume of 2.9% for the former Soviet Union in 1990)...

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Industry Of Russia На фото: Industry Of Russia, автор: admin

Публикация №1188911598 04 сентября 2007

Major manufacturing industries include crude steel, cars and trucks, aircraft, machine equipment, chemicals (including fertilizers), plastics, cement and other building materials, medical and scientific instruments, textiles, handicrafts, paper, television sets, appliances, and foodstuffs...

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Income Of Russian Federation На фото: Income Of Russian Federation, автор: admin

Публикация №1188911541 04 сентября 2007

The US Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) reports that in 2005 the Russian Federation's gross domestic product (GDP) was estimated at $1.5 trillion. The CIA defines GDP as the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year and computed on the basis of purchasing power parity (PPP) rather than value as measured on the basis of the rate of exchange based on current dollars. The per capita GDP was estimated at $10,700. The annual growth rate of GDP was estimated at 5.9%. The average inflation rate in 2005 was 12.9%. It was estimated that agriculture accounted for 5% of GDP, industry 35%, and services 60%...

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Public Finance Of Russia На фото: Public Finance Of Russia, автор: admin

Публикация №1188911469 04 сентября 2007

Since the breakup of the COMECON and the Soviet Union, trade disruptions and friction between Russia and the governments of the former Soviet republics had led to an enormous expansion of the fiscal deficit. The deficit was financed largely through sales of domestic government securities and borrowing from international financial institutions...

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Russia's Economy На фото: Russia's Economy, автор: admin

Публикация №1188911419 04 сентября 2007

Russia's economy, $1.5 trillion in purchasing power parity (PPP) terms (as of 2005), is the largest within the former Soviet bloc. It was undergoing a painful transformation from a centrally planned economy to a market-oriented one with limited public ownership. Per capita income in 2005 was only $5,165 in nominal terms, although $10,758 in PPP terms. By 2004, services comprised the largest sector of the economy (61.2%), while industrial production accounted for 33.9% of GDP. The manufacturing centers around Moscow and St. Petersburg are the most important, as they were for the entire former USSR. Russia has rich energy and mineral resources, including large deposits of iron ore, coal, phosphates, and nonferrous metals, as well as one-fifth of the world's gold deposits and substantial oil and gas reserves. There are also vast forest resources. Agricultural production accounted for 4.9% of GDP in 2004. Although the share of agriculture in total output fell from 14% in 1991 to 4.9% in 2004, the collapse has led to underemployment rather than unemployment among rural workers, and therefore agriculture still accounted for more than 12% of official employment in 2002. There is an acute excess demand for goods, especially consumer goods...

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