The October Manifesto, October 30, 1905 [historical document] На фото: The October Manifesto, October 30, 1905 [historical document], автор: admin

Публикация №1188912640 04 сентября 2007

Promulgation of a decree creating a constitutional government in Russia...

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Vladimir Putin, President of Russia На фото: Vladimir Putin, President of Russia, автор: admin

Публикация №1188912574 04 сентября 2007

Russia, officially called the Russian Federation, was by far the largest republic of the former USSR. Its estimated 2002 population of 145 million accounted for slightly more than half the Soviet total. Its 17 million square kilometers (6.6 million square miles) comprised 76% of the territory of the USSR, stretching across Eurasia to the Pacific across 11 time zones. Russia also inherited the lion's share of the natural resources, industrial base, and military assets of the former Soviet Union. Much of its territory in the north and Far East, however, is sparsely populated. Although Russia is nearly twice the size of the United States, its population is only a bit more than half the U.S. total...

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Allied Intervention in the Russian Revolution На фото: Allied Intervention in the Russian Revolution, автор: admin

Публикация №1188912476 04 сентября 2007

The Bolshevik Revolution of November 1917 set off not just a brutal civil war in Russia but also a determined international effort to aid anti-Bolshevik forces. Beginning in the spring of 1918, the Allies sent troops eventually numbering 150,000 men from fifteen nations, including Britain, France, the United States, and Japan. In most cases these forces had been withdrawn by 1920, but Japan kept troops on the mainland Far East until 1922 and on the Russian part of Sakhalin Island until 1925. This intervention cast a long shadow over Soviet Russia and its relations with much of the rest of the world...

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Stolypin's Reforms in Revolutionary Russia На фото: Stolypin's Reforms in Revolutionary Russia, автор: admin

Публикация №1188912282 04 сентября 2007

The appointment of Petr Arkadevich Stolypin as premier of the Russian Empire in 1906 brought with it the promise of reform. Although Stolypin became infamous for his use of political repression to stabilize Russian society in the aftermath of the Revolution of 1905, he also implemented major initiatives intended to deepen that stabilization. Chief among these reforms was a measure that allowed peasants to depart from the traditional mir (commune), the institution to which most of them had belonged for centuries, and create their own private farms. Meant to instill values of proprietorship and private property, this legislation was intended to give Russian peasants a stake in the preservation of the established order. Hoping to attract people of initiative and responsibility, Stolypin characterized the measure as "a wager on the strong." By the outbreak of World War I in 1914, millions of peasants had embraced his idea and left the commune. Millions of others left overcrowded central Russia for new lives in Siberia, where, in another reform, the state made lands available to colonists.

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Russo-Japanese War На фото: Russo-Japanese War, автор: admin

Публикация №1188912237 04 сентября 2007

Russia fared poorly in its war with Japan in 1904-1905. It lost its forward positions in Manchuria, much of its fleet, and some three hundred thousand casualties. A product of Russian imperial expansion in northwest Asia, the conflict grew out of its ambitions, which clashed with those of the Japanese. Japan wanted Korea, a free hand in southern Manchuria, and general regional hegemony. The Russians had almost exactly the same goals. Japan offered a diplomatic settlement, which the Russians turned down. Faced with no peaceful solution, the Japanese launched a surprise attack on Russian positions in the Far East in January 1904...

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Relevance of the Duma in Late Imperial Russia На фото: Relevance of the Duma in Late Imperial Russia, автор: admin

Публикация №1188912172 04 сентября 2007

Until 1906 Russia had no elected representative institution for the whole country. Created as the result of Tsar Nicholas II's promise to allow for one in the October Manifesto of 1905, the Gosudarstvennaya Duma (State Assembly) represented great democratic hopes to many Russians...

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Public Opinion and Foreign Policy in Late Imperial Russia На фото: Public Opinion and Foreign Policy in Late Imperial Russia, автор: admin

Публикация №1188912101 04 сентября 2007

Much ink has been spilled in assessing the importance of public opinion in foreign policy. In the context of Imperial Russia, public opinion long appeared to be irrelevant. An elitist state run by remote and unaccountable (to all but the tsar) officials paid little attention to public opinion with regard to foreign policy and almost any other subject. Policy was made on the basis of interests and their evaluation, often flawed, by high-ranking servitors of the state...

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Aristocracy in Late Nineteenth-century Russian Society На фото: Aristocracy in Late Nineteenth-century Russian Society, автор: admin

Публикация №1188912035 04 сентября 2007

ristocracy has many meanings in modern contexts. Traditional views of Imperial Russia contextualize its aristocracy as a study in decline during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. The class of hereditary landowners that had long held sway over Russian political, social, and economic life seemed to be on the wane. Over time it owned less land, held fewer positions, and enjoyed less prominence than at any other time in its history. Together with the rise of new social groups that controlled more of Russia's wealth and civic prominence, the old-fashioned estate system seemed out of touch, and its pinnacle, the aristocracy, appeared to be in decline...

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Foreign Trade In Russia На фото: Foreign Trade In Russia, автор: admin

Публикация №1188911959 04 сентября 2007

Principal exports have traditionally been oil, natural gas, minerals, military equipment and weapons, gold, shipping, and transport services. Principal imports include machinery and equipment, consumer goods, medicines, meat, grain, sugar, and semifinished metal products. Mainly because of high international oil prices, export revenue soared after 2000. Import growth picked up over the same period as a result of rising real incomes and real ruble appreciation. The trade surplus increased to $87 billion in 2004...

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Domestic Trade In Russia На фото: Domestic Trade In Russia, автор: admin

Публикация №1188911895 04 сентября 2007

A central marketplace is a common feature of urban areas in Russia. Outside of Moscow and St. Petersburg, small open markets and kiosks are the primary retail establishments. Nationwide distribution channels are still largely undefined...

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