Economic Development Of Russia На фото: Economic Development Of Russia, автор: admin

Публикация №1188911351 04 сентября 2007

In 1991, Russia's parliament enacted legislation aimed at fully privatizing the commercial and service sector by 1994 and placing about half the medium and large companies in private hands by 1995. By the end of 1992, about 6,000 firms had applied to become joint-stock companies, and 1,560 had completed the process; almost one-third of Russia's approximately 250,000 small businesses had been privatized. Housing privatization began late in 1992, and over 2.6 million apartments--about 8% of the total--had been privatized by the end of 1993. In 1996, the government claimed that the nonstate sector produced approximately 70% of gross domestic product (GDP), up from 62% in 1995. Russia's Communist-dominated parliament, however, was quick to criticize the government's privatization efforts which they thought were responsible for the economic decline. In March 1997, over two million people took part in a national strike protesting the economic hardships of privatization and over 100,000 attended rallies in Moscow and St. Petersburg. The government, however, was committed to privatization and largely ignored the parliament and the protests...

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Banking and Securities In Russia На фото: Banking and Securities In Russia, автор: admin

Публикация №1188911297 04 сентября 2007

The Central Bank of the Russian Federation was created in January 1992 from the old Soviet banking system headed by Gosbank (The Soviet State Bank). The bank heads a two-tier banking system, and implements a monetary policy and regulates the commercial banking sector by setting the reserve requirements and the discount rate. The currency unit of Russia is the ruble, a currency that is in the process of becoming fully convertible with world currency. Russia, along with a few other countries of the former Soviet Union, decided to keep the ruble as its currency. The other important state bank is the Rosevneshtorgbank (Bank for Foreign Trade of the Russian Federation)...

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Mining In Russia На фото: Mining In Russia, автор: admin

Публикация №1188911220 04 сентября 2007

With bountiful and diverse minerals, Russia, the world's largest country in land area, occupying 75% of the former Soviet Union, had a significant percentage of the world's mineral resources and mineral production. Russia is one of the largest producers of palladium and nickel, as well as of aluminum and platinum-group metals (PGMs), potash, gold, and mined copper. Russia also produced a large percentage of the Commonwealth of Independent States' (CIS) bauxite, coal, cobalt, diamond, lead, mica, natural gas, oil, tin, zinc, and many other metals, industrial minerals, and mineral fuels. Exports under the "Mineral Products" category accounted for around 75% or $80 billion of Russia's exports by value in 2002. Of that total, natural gas exports by value totaled over $15 billion, while crude oil and petroleum products accounted for nearly another $40 billion in 2002...

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Forestry In Russia На фото: Forestry In Russia, автор: admin

Публикация №1188911177 04 сентября 2007

Russia's forested areas are vast. In 2000 an estimated 851.4 million hectares (2,104 million acres) were classified as forested--an area larger than the total land area of Australia. Only half of this area is commercially accessible and only 7-10% is currently exploited. Russia contains 25% of the world's forested area; 20% of the world's forests are in Siberia. The forest stock in Russia is 80% coniferous, consisting mainly of spruce, fir, larch, and pine in subarctic areas; these stands account for 52% of the world's coniferous areas. Deciduous trees (birch, oak, beech, ash, maple, elm) grow further south and account for 13% of the world's deciduous forests...

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Fishing In Russia На фото: Fishing In Russia, автор: admin

Публикация №1188911124 04 сентября 2007

Russia's fish production ranks eighth in the world, following China, Peru, USA, Indonesia, Japan, India, and Chile. In 2003, 91% of the catch was marine, while 9% came from inland waters. The total catch in 2003 was 3,429,121 tons. The main species of the commercial catch in 2003 included (in thousands of tons): whiting, 360; herring, 335; cod, 277; and salmon, 188. Russia is a leading producer of crabmeat, fish roe, whole groundfish, and salmon products. More than half of Russian fish product exports consist of frozen products. Exports of frozen fish fillets in 2003 were valued at $141.9 million; and roe, $145.6 million...

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Russian Energy and Power [Energetics] На фото: Russian Energy and Power [Energetics], автор: admin

Публикация №1188911078 04 сентября 2007

Russia possesses enormous reserves of oil, natural gas, and coal. It is the largest exporter of natural gas in the world, the world's second-largest exporter of petroleum, and the third-largest consumer of energy in the world...

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Animal Husbandry In Russia На фото: Animal Husbandry In Russia, автор: admin

Публикация №1188911015 04 сентября 2007

Some 91.9 million hectares (227 million acres) are pastureland, representing 5.6% of the total area. In 2005, the livestock population included: cattle, 22,987,700; sheep, 15,499,700; and pigs, 13,412,800. Russia also had 1.5 million horses, 328.9 million chickens, 2.7 million geese, and 2.5 million turkeys in 2005...

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Agriculture In Russia На фото: Agriculture In Russia, автор: admin

Публикация №1188910981 04 сентября 2007

In 2003, Russia had 124.4 million hectares (307.4 million acres) of arable land (8.5% of the world's total), covering 7.6% of the country's land area. In 2003, the share of agriculture in the GDP was 5%. Agricultural production dropped by an average of 6% annually during 1990-2000. However, during 2002-04, crop production was 13.1% higher than during 1999-2001. A surge in imports of food products during that period is the direct result of difficulties faced by domestic farmers and processors, and has brought with it a desire for protection from foreign competition in the name of national security. In 2004, Russia's agricultural trade deficit was over $10.1 billion, fifth highest in the world...

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Media In Russia На фото: Media In Russia, автор: admin

Публикация №1188910925 04 сентября 2007

As of 1999, over 1,000 companies were licensed to offer telecommunications services. In 2003, there were an estimated 242 mainline telephones for every 1,000 people; over 5 million people were on a waiting list for telephone service installation. The same year, there were approximately 249 mobile phones in use for every 1,000 people...

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Population Of Russia На фото: Population Of Russia, автор: admin

Публикация №1188910893 04 сентября 2007

The population of Russia in 2005 was estimated by the United Nations (UN) at 143,025,000, which placed it at number 8 in population among the 193 nations of the world. In 2005, approximately 13% of the population was over 65 years of age, with another 16% of the population under 15 years of age. There were 87 males for every 100 females in the country. According to the UN, the annual population rate of change for 2005-10 was expected to be -0.6%, a rate the government viewed as too low. Russia's fertility rate is among the lowest in the world. The projected population for the year 2025 was 130,175,000. The overall population density was 8 per sq km (22 per sq mi), but the population is distributed unequally, with rural areas being very sparsely populated...

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