Health In Russia На фото: Health In Russia, автор: admin

Публикация №1188910643 04 сентября 2007

As of the mid-1990s, the overall organization of the health care system has largely been carried over from the Soviet era. Primary care has been delivered through basic units called uchastoks. In rural areas, these districts are served by health posts staffed by midwives or physicians' assistants, while health centers and urban polyclinics are available in larger population centers. The secondary-care network has also been retained from the Soviet era and consisted of uchastok hospitals and health centers, district hospitals and polyclinics, and regional hospitals and polyclinics. Medical facilities throughout the country are generally inadequate, with equipment that is both outdated and in poor condition. A survey conducted in the mid-1990s found a high level of dissatisfaction with the health care system on the part of both the general public and health care personnel, as well as widespread support for privatization. As of 2004, there were an estimated 417 physicians, 787 nurses, and 32 dentists per 100,000 people. Total health care expenditure was estimated at 4.6% of GDP...

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Education In Russia На фото: Education In Russia, автор: admin

Публикация №1188910570 04 сентября 2007

Education, mostly free and state funded, is also compulsory for 10 years. Primary school covers four years, followed by another five years of basic school. Senior secondary schools offer two-year programs. Vocational secondary schools offer a four-year course of studies. Although Russian is the most common medium of instruction, other languages are also taught, especially at the secondary level. In the early 1990s, many privately owned institutions were opened, and the education system was modified with the introduction of a revised curriculum. The academic year runs from September to June...

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Famous Russians На фото: Famous Russians, автор: admin

Публикация №1188910520 04 сентября 2007

Notable among the rulers of prerevolutionary Russia were Ivan III (the Great, 1440-1505), who established Moscow as a sovereign state; Peter I (the Great, 1672-1725), a key figure in the modernization of Russia; Alexander I (1777-1825), prominent both in the war against Napoleon and the political reaction that followed the war; and Alexander II (1818-81), a social reformer who freed the serfs. Mikhail Gorbachev (b.1931) came to power in 1985, initiated reforms of the old Communist system and won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1990...

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Transportation In Russia На фото: Transportation In Russia, автор: admin

Публикация №1188910421 04 сентября 2007

Russia's transportation system is extensive, but is in a state of general decay. Maintenance, modernization, and expansion are required for Russia's infrastructure, much of which operates beyond capacity...

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Science and Technology In Russia На фото: Science and Technology In Russia, автор: admin

Публикация №1188910373 04 сентября 2007

The Russian Academy of Sciences, founded in 1725, is the chief coordinating body for scientific research in Russia through its science councils and commissions. It has sections of physical, technical, and mathematical sciences; chemical, technological, and biological sciences, and earth sciences, and controls a network of nearly 300 research institutes. The Russian Academy of Agricultural Sciences, founded in 1929, has departments of plant breeding and genetics; arable farming and the use of agricultural chemicals; feed and fodder crops production; plant protection; livestock production; veterinary science; mechanization, electrification, and automation in farming; forestry; the economics and management of agricultural production; land reform and the organization of land use; land reclamation and water resources; and the storage and processing of agricultural products. It controls a network of nearly 100 research institutes. It supervises a number of research institutes, experimental and breeding stations, dendraria and arboreta. The Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, founded in 1944, has departments of preventive medicine, clinical medicine, and medical and biological sciences, and controls a network of nearly 100 research institutes...

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Religions Of Russia На фото: Religions Of Russia, автор: admin

Публикация №1188910279 04 сентября 2007

The Russian Orthodox Church (ROC) dates back to the "Kievan Rus" period (the first organized Russian state). In 988, Prince Vladimir, in order to gain an alliance with the powerful Byzantine Empire, declared Christianity as the religion of his realm and mandated the baptism of Kiev's population and the construction of cathedrals. During the Mongol occupation (1240-1480), the head of the ROC (Metropolitan) was moved to Moscow. Throughout the reign of the tsars, Orthodoxy was synonymous with autocracy and national identity. After the Communist revolution of 1917, the Soviet government, based on Marxism, imposed a dogma of militant atheism and subordinated the ROC through fear and persecution. Other Christians, Muslims, and Jews were also oppressed (anti-Semitism was widespread before and after the 1917 revolution). Since 1985 and the subsequent dissolution of the Soviet Union, thousands of churches have been reopened; freedom of religion was incorporated into the draft constitution of 1993...

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Organizations In Russia На фото: Organizations In Russia, автор: admin

Публикация №1188910240 04 сентября 2007

A chamber of commerce that promotes the economic and business activities of the country to the rest of the world operates in Moscow. The Russian Academy of Entrepreneurship assists business owners. There are several professional associations representing a wide variety fields, such as the Health Workers Union of the Russian Federation and the Association of Russian Automobile Dealers. Some professional associations also promote public education and research in specific technical or scientific fields, such as the Russian Medical Society...

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Languages In Russia На фото: Languages In Russia, автор: admin

Публикация №1188910182 04 сентября 2007

About 90% of the population speaks Russian, a member of the eastern group of Slavic languages. It is highly inflected, with nouns, pronouns, and adjectives declined in six cases. There are three grammatical genders. The language, which has been written since about ad 1000, uses the Cyrillic alphabet of 33 letters. In addition, a wide variety of other Slavic, Finno-Ugric, Turkic, Mongol, Tungus, and Paleo-Asiatic languages also are spoken. In the republic of Dagestan alone, two million people share 28 languages, 14 of which are unwritten...

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Social Development Of Russia На фото: Social Development Of Russia, автор: admin

Публикация №1188910131 04 сентября 2007

A social insurance system provides pensions for old-age, survivorship, and disability. The program is funded by employer payrolls, and self-employed persons and independent farmers contribute a fixed amount monthly. The government provides subsidies when needed. The first laws governing sickness benefits were implemented in 1912. All citizens and refugees are entitled to medical care; employed persons receive cash benefits for sickness. There is also a benefit provided to those caring for a sick child. Work injury is funded by the employer. Maternity benefits cover 100% of earnings from between 10 and 12 weeks before the expected date of childbirth and 10 to 16 weeks after childbirth. A universal system of family allowances provides a birth grant, a funeral grant, and a monthly benefit for each child under the age of 16...

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Tourism, Travel and Recreation In Russia На фото: Tourism, Travel and Recreation In Russia, автор: admin

Публикация №1188910017 04 сентября 2007

In September 1992, Russia lifted its travel restrictions on foreigners, opening the entire country to visitors and tourists. Moscow is a major tourist destination with many attractions including Red Square, the Kremlin, St. Basil's Cathedral, and many other monasteries, churches, museums and other cultural attractions. The most famous of Moscow's parks and gardens is Gorky Park. St. Petersburg is a beautifully preserved neoclassical city with palace-lined waterways. Attractions include the State Hermitage Museum, Peter and Paul Fortress, and the Nevsky Prospekt. Football (soccer), ice hockey, and tennis are popular sports in Russia. Maria Sharapova won the Wimbledon women's title in 2004...

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