Agriculture In Russia На фото: Agriculture In Russia, автор: admin

Публикация №1188910981 04 сентября 2007

In 2003, Russia had 124.4 million hectares (307.4 million acres) of arable land (8.5% of the world's total), covering 7.6% of the country's land area. In 2003, the share of agriculture in the GDP was 5%. Agricultural production dropped by an average of 6% annually during 1990-2000. However, during 2002-04, crop production was 13.1% higher than during 1999-2001. A surge in imports of food products during that period is the direct result of difficulties faced by domestic farmers and processors, and has brought with it a desire for protection from foreign competition in the name of national security. In 2004, Russia's agricultural trade deficit was over $10.1 billion, fifth highest in the world...

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Media In Russia На фото: Media In Russia, автор: admin

Публикация №1188910925 04 сентября 2007

As of 1999, over 1,000 companies were licensed to offer telecommunications services. In 2003, there were an estimated 242 mainline telephones for every 1,000 people; over 5 million people were on a waiting list for telephone service installation. The same year, there were approximately 249 mobile phones in use for every 1,000 people...

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Population Of Russia На фото: Population Of Russia, автор: admin

Публикация №1188910893 04 сентября 2007

The population of Russia in 2005 was estimated by the United Nations (UN) at 143,025,000, which placed it at number 8 in population among the 193 nations of the world. In 2005, approximately 13% of the population was over 65 years of age, with another 16% of the population under 15 years of age. There were 87 males for every 100 females in the country. According to the UN, the annual population rate of change for 2005-10 was expected to be -0.6%, a rate the government viewed as too low. Russia's fertility rate is among the lowest in the world. The projected population for the year 2025 was 130,175,000. The overall population density was 8 per sq km (22 per sq mi), but the population is distributed unequally, with rural areas being very sparsely populated...

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Health In Russia На фото: Health In Russia, автор: admin

Публикация №1188910643 04 сентября 2007

As of the mid-1990s, the overall organization of the health care system has largely been carried over from the Soviet era. Primary care has been delivered through basic units called uchastoks. In rural areas, these districts are served by health posts staffed by midwives or physicians' assistants, while health centers and urban polyclinics are available in larger population centers. The secondary-care network has also been retained from the Soviet era and consisted of uchastok hospitals and health centers, district hospitals and polyclinics, and regional hospitals and polyclinics. Medical facilities throughout the country are generally inadequate, with equipment that is both outdated and in poor condition. A survey conducted in the mid-1990s found a high level of dissatisfaction with the health care system on the part of both the general public and health care personnel, as well as widespread support for privatization. As of 2004, there were an estimated 417 physicians, 787 nurses, and 32 dentists per 100,000 people. Total health care expenditure was estimated at 4.6% of GDP...

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Education In Russia На фото: Education In Russia, автор: admin

Публикация №1188910570 04 сентября 2007

Education, mostly free and state funded, is also compulsory for 10 years. Primary school covers four years, followed by another five years of basic school. Senior secondary schools offer two-year programs. Vocational secondary schools offer a four-year course of studies. Although Russian is the most common medium of instruction, other languages are also taught, especially at the secondary level. In the early 1990s, many privately owned institutions were opened, and the education system was modified with the introduction of a revised curriculum. The academic year runs from September to June...

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Famous Russians На фото: Famous Russians, автор: admin

Публикация №1188910520 04 сентября 2007

Notable among the rulers of prerevolutionary Russia were Ivan III (the Great, 1440-1505), who established Moscow as a sovereign state; Peter I (the Great, 1672-1725), a key figure in the modernization of Russia; Alexander I (1777-1825), prominent both in the war against Napoleon and the political reaction that followed the war; and Alexander II (1818-81), a social reformer who freed the serfs. Mikhail Gorbachev (b.1931) came to power in 1985, initiated reforms of the old Communist system and won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1990...

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Transportation In Russia На фото: Transportation In Russia, автор: admin

Публикация №1188910421 04 сентября 2007

Russia's transportation system is extensive, but is in a state of general decay. Maintenance, modernization, and expansion are required for Russia's infrastructure, much of which operates beyond capacity...

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Science and Technology In Russia На фото: Science and Technology In Russia, автор: admin

Публикация №1188910373 04 сентября 2007

The Russian Academy of Sciences, founded in 1725, is the chief coordinating body for scientific research in Russia through its science councils and commissions. It has sections of physical, technical, and mathematical sciences; chemical, technological, and biological sciences, and earth sciences, and controls a network of nearly 300 research institutes. The Russian Academy of Agricultural Sciences, founded in 1929, has departments of plant breeding and genetics; arable farming and the use of agricultural chemicals; feed and fodder crops production; plant protection; livestock production; veterinary science; mechanization, electrification, and automation in farming; forestry; the economics and management of agricultural production; land reform and the organization of land use; land reclamation and water resources; and the storage and processing of agricultural products. It controls a network of nearly 100 research institutes. It supervises a number of research institutes, experimental and breeding stations, dendraria and arboreta. The Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, founded in 1944, has departments of preventive medicine, clinical medicine, and medical and biological sciences, and controls a network of nearly 100 research institutes...

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Religions Of Russia На фото: Religions Of Russia, автор: admin

Публикация №1188910279 04 сентября 2007

The Russian Orthodox Church (ROC) dates back to the "Kievan Rus" period (the first organized Russian state). In 988, Prince Vladimir, in order to gain an alliance with the powerful Byzantine Empire, declared Christianity as the religion of his realm and mandated the baptism of Kiev's population and the construction of cathedrals. During the Mongol occupation (1240-1480), the head of the ROC (Metropolitan) was moved to Moscow. Throughout the reign of the tsars, Orthodoxy was synonymous with autocracy and national identity. After the Communist revolution of 1917, the Soviet government, based on Marxism, imposed a dogma of militant atheism and subordinated the ROC through fear and persecution. Other Christians, Muslims, and Jews were also oppressed (anti-Semitism was widespread before and after the 1917 revolution). Since 1985 and the subsequent dissolution of the Soviet Union, thousands of churches have been reopened; freedom of religion was incorporated into the draft constitution of 1993...

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Organizations In Russia На фото: Organizations In Russia, автор: admin

Публикация №1188910240 04 сентября 2007

A chamber of commerce that promotes the economic and business activities of the country to the rest of the world operates in Moscow. The Russian Academy of Entrepreneurship assists business owners. There are several professional associations representing a wide variety fields, such as the Health Workers Union of the Russian Federation and the Association of Russian Automobile Dealers. Some professional associations also promote public education and research in specific technical or scientific fields, such as the Russian Medical Society...

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