Government Of Russia На фото: Government Of Russia, автор: admin

Публикация №1188909816 04 сентября 2007

Russia is a democratic federative state based on rule of law with a division of power among the legislative, executive, and judicial branches. It is a constitutional government, based on a post-Soviet constitution, which was approved in a referendum held 12 December 1993. The constitution establishes a bicameral legislature known as the Federal Assembly. The lower house (State Duma) consists of 450 elected deputies while the 178-member upper house (Council of the Federation) is composed of representatives of the provinces and autonomous republics that make up Russia...

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Local Government Of Russia На фото: Local Government Of Russia, автор: admin

Публикация №1188909770 04 сентября 2007

Russia has a complicated patchwork of regional and local governments, including 89 federal subjects of constituencies. Those 89 units are not of equal status. Russia is divided into 6 krais, 49 oblasts, 1 autonomous oblast, 10 autonomous okrugs, and two independent cities (Moscow and St. Petersburg). There are also 21 autonomous republics where non-Russian minorities predominate (or once predominated). The Chechen republic of Ichkeria, is, de facto, a separate state, although not recognized as such by the federal authorities...

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International Cooperation Of Russia На фото: International Cooperation Of Russia, автор: admin

Публикация №1188909703 04 сентября 2007

Russia has essentially assumed and expanded upon the foreign relations ties established by the former Soviet Union. In one form or another, it has held a seat in the United Nations since 24 October 1945; it is a part of several nonregional specialized agencies, such as IAEA, ICAO, ILO, UNHCR, UNIDO, and the WHO. Russia is a permanent member of the UN Security Council. The nation is also member of APEC, the Commonwealth of Independent Nations, the Black Sea Economic Cooperation Zone, the Council of the Baltic Sea States, the Council of Europe, the Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council, the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, G-8, the Paris Club (G-10), and the OSCE. In June 2001, leaders of Russia, China, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan met in China to launch the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO) and sign an agreement to fight terrorism and ethnic and religious militancy while promoting trade. The country holds observer status in the OAS, the WTO, and the Latin American Integration Association (LAIA). Russia is a dialogue partner in ASEAN and part of the ASEAN Regional Forum...

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Armed Forces Of Russia На фото: Armed Forces Of Russia, автор: admin

Публикация №1188909639 04 сентября 2007

With the collapse of the original Soviet Union in 1992, Russia established a separate Ministry of Defense and military establishment upon the wreckage of the Soviet armed forces. Still formidable in terms of weapons and equipment, the Russian armed forces reached a low state of morale and effectiveness in 1993, "hollowed" by low-manning, the failure of draft calls, diversion to survival tasks rather than training, and lack of discipline. In the following years, military reforms were undertaken. The first phase, completed by the end of 1998, involved reorganization of the military command structure, redistricting, and troop reductions. The second phase focused on equipment modernization and operational readiness. Readiness was also improved in response to the NATO bombing of Serbia following hostilities in Kosovo...

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Migration To Russia На фото: Migration To Russia, автор: admin

Публикация №1188909589 04 сентября 2007

During 1979-88, Russia gained 1,747,040 people through net migration from other Soviet republics. Germany took in 156,299 former Soviet Germans in 1991. As of May, 1996, there were still 75,000 internally displaced persons from the Chernobyl accident in 1986. Following the military conflicts in Chechnya of 1994, 220,000 people fled to the neighboring republics of Daghestan, Ingushetia, and North Ossetia...

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The Brief History Of Russia На фото: The Brief History Of Russia, автор: admin

Публикация №1188909367 04 сентября 2007

The history of Russia is usually dated from the 9th century ad when a loose federation of the eastern Slavic tribes was achieved under the legendary Rurik. At this time, Kiev was the political and cultural center. Vulnerable due to the flat land that surrounded them, the Kievan rulers sought security through expansion--a policy that subsequent Russian leaders frequently pursued...

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Environment Of Russia На фото: Environment Of Russia, автор: admin

Публикация №1188909303 04 сентября 2007

Decades of Soviet mismanagement resulted in the catastrophic pollution of land, air, rivers, and seacoasts. Air pollution is especially a problem in the Urals and Kuznetsk (where vast populations are exposed to hazardous emissions from metal-processing plants) as well as in the Volga and Moscow regions. In 1992 Russia had the world's third-highest level of industrial carbon dioxide emissions, which totaled 2.1 billion metric tons, a per capita level of 14.11 metric tons. However, in 1996 the total dropped to 1.5 billion metric tons and in 2000 the total was about 1.4 billion metric tons...

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Flora And Fauna Of Russia На фото: Flora And Fauna Of Russia, автор: admin

Публикация №1188909260 04 сентября 2007

ssia has several soil and vegetation zones, each with its characteristic flora and fauna. Northernmost is the so-called arctic desert zone, which includes most of the islands of the Arctic Ocean and the seacoast of the Taymyr Peninsula. These areas are characterized by the almost complete absence of plant cover; only mosses and lichens are to be found. Birds and mammals associated with the sea (sea calf, seal, and walrus) are typical of this zone...

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Climate Of Russia На фото: Climate Of Russia, автор: admin

Публикация №1188909214 04 сентября 2007

Most of the country has a continental climate, with long, cold winters and brief summers. There is a wide range of summer and winter temperatures and relatively low precipitation. January temperatures are in the range of 6°c (45°f) on the southeastern shore of the Black Sea. A record low temperature of -71°c (-96°f) was recorded in 1974 at the northeast Siberian village of Oymyakon, the lowest temperature ever recorded anywhere in the world for an inhabited region. In many areas of Siberia the soil never thaws for more than a foot...

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Topography Of Russia На фото: Topography Of Russia, автор: admin

Публикация №1188909156 04 сентября 2007

From west to east, the country can be roughly divided into five large geographic regions: the Great European Plain, the Ural Mountains, the West Siberian Plain, the Central Siberian Plateau, and the mountains of the northeast and southeast. The Great European and West Siberian Plains contain a variety of terrain, including grasslands and farmlands as well as forests, swamps, and large regions of tundra. The Caucasus Mountains, located between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea at the southwest of the Great European Plain, are divided into two chains separated by lowlands. The Caucasus Mountains form the border with Russia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia and mark the boundary between Asia to the south and Europe to the north. The highest peak in the Caucasus Mountains is the extinct volcano Mt. Elbrus (5,642 m/18,510 ft); this is also the highest peak in Russia and Europe. The lowest point in Russia is at the Caspian Sea, 28 m (92 ft) below sea level. The Caspian Sea is the world's largest lake...

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