Civil Society in Imperial Russia
Публикация №1188907385 04 сентября 2007 / Научная библиотека Порталус - Imperial Russia
A recent trend in the historiography of Imperial Russia has examined evidence of its capacity to sustain civil society. A term borrowed from the German philosopher Jürgen Habermas, who used it to describe the emergence of independent social and economic institutions in Western Europe, civil society can include such relatively modern innovations as the mass media, local government, business and industry, professional groups, voluntary associations, and other communities of citizenship that function beyond the purview of the central state...
Lenin and the Causes of the Russian Revolution
Публикация №1188907319 04 сентября 2007 / Научная библиотека Порталус - Soviet Russia (1917-53)
In early 1917 the German High Command agreed to transport three dozen exiled Russian revolutionaries from Switzerland across Germany to the newly renamed Petrograd. The purpose of the exercise was to foment revolution in Russia and thereby achieve through politics what for two and a half years had proven impossible militarily: drive Russia out of a war Germany was a long way from winning...
Russian President Boris Yeltsin Signs a Bill Limiting Religious Freedom in Russia, September 26, 1997
Публикация №1188907200 04 сентября 2007 / Научная библиотека Порталус RELIGION
After receiving entreaties from the Vatican, U.S. leaders, and human-rights groups, Russian president Boris Yeltsin in July 1997 rejected a bill that would limit religious freedom in Russia. Then, in September, he stunned foreign observers by signing the legislation, which recognized only the "traditional religions" of Christianity, Islam, Buddhism, and Judaism. Wholeheartedly supported by the Russian Orthodox Church and the heavily nationalist Duma, Russia's ruling legislative body, the law was supposedly instituted to protect against dangerous cults. It would also allegedly protect the religious freedoms of non-Orthodox Christians, but many critics maintained that its purpose was to consolidate the power of what was once Russia's state church...
Публикация №1188907113 04 сентября 2007 / Научная библиотека Порталус - Imperial Russia
Russia was one of the greatest losers of World War I (1914-1918). Its armies were defeated on the battlefield; much of its territory was occupied by enemies; both its reigning Romanov dynasty and the vaguely democratic government that replaced it were toppled by domestic political turmoil; authority fell into the hands of extremists, who presided over one of the most repressive regimes in history; and the price of peace was a massive loss of territory, population, and resources. Was Imperial Russia doomed to such terrible catastrophe?..
New Law Legalizes the Purchase and Sale of Urban Land--A First in Russian History, October 26, 2001
Публикация №1188907038 04 сентября 2007 / Научная библиотека Порталус ECONOMY
Reversing generations of Russian and Soviet history, Russian President Vladimir Putin in October 2001 signed legislation legalizing the purchase and sale of land in urban and industrial areas. This accounted for only about 2 percent of Russia's vast land mass, yet the Land Code--which gave foreigners virtually the same rights of ownership as Russians--was epochal nonetheless. Creating a market for land, and a new source of value, could only be good for Russia's faltering economy, but the significance of the new law (just one of several sweeping reforms put through parliament by the president) extended far beyond economics. At a time when unrest in Russia raised occasional fears of a Communist return to power, the Land Code signified a sharp break with the Marxist - and czarist - past...
Revolutionary Russia and the Balkans
Публикация №1188906900 04 сентября 2007 / Научная библиотека Порталус - Soviet Russia (1917-53)
Russia's protective role of the Balkans has been a long-lasting cliché of European politics. Bound to their larger neighbor by Orthodox Christianity, Slavic roots, and a common heritage of opposition to the Muslim Turks, the Balkan peoples, many have argued, found earnest and reliable protectors in their Russian neighbors. Russia faithfully supported their revolts against the Ottoman Empire, crafted diplomacy to safeguard their interests, and intervened directly to help them achieve independence from Muslim rule. Russia in this view was noble, helpful, and beneficent...
Post-Cold War Espionage Between the United States and Russia: How Has the Mission Changed?
Публикация №1188906831 04 сентября 2007 / Научная библиотека Порталус POLITICS
The ideological conflict between capitalism and communism sparked the Cold War, fought by the two countries that emerged most powerful from World War II--the United States and the Soviet Union. Espionage between the two superpowers was a major component of the Cold War. When the Soviet Union collapsed in 1991 and the Cold War ended, the nature of espionage between the United States and Russia changed dramatically...
Публикация №1188906701 04 сентября 2007 / Научная библиотека Порталус POLITICS
British statesman Winston Churchill once famously referred to Russia as a "riddle wrapped in a mystery inside an enigma." The consternation expressed in his statement at least partly derived from the question of Russia's identity as a nation. For many observers, Russia is undeniably part of the West. A Christian nation since the conversion of its people in 988, Russia has been intimately tied to Europe by culture, trade, and diplomacy, as well as by faith. The basis for its laws and social organization, from the tsars through the communists to its current leaders, has shared many commonalities with the West. The development of its art, science, and philosophy had pronounced Western influences and went a long way toward influencing the West itself...
Chechnya and Russia: A War of Succession
Публикация №1188906480 04 сентября 2007 / Научная библиотека Порталус - Post-Soviet Russia
In February 2000, Russian military forces retook the city of Grozny, capital of the breakaway republic of Chechnya. Chechen separatists, who had declared Chechnya's independence in 1991 from the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) as it was dissolving, fled once again into the surrounding Caucasus Mountains. Anxious to restore a sense of normality to the besieged capital, Russian officials quickly began to plan a government to replace the one established by Aslan Maskhadov who had been elected to the Chechen presidency in 1997 and who had also fled the capital. The recapture of Grozny, the capital of Chechnya, was a significant victory for Russia whose army had crossed into Chechnya in October 1999 and restarted a war that the outside world had hoped was ended three years earlier...
Russia Agrees to Take the World's Nuclear Waste: But Where to Put it?
Публикация №1188906364 04 сентября 2007 / Научная библиотека Порталус ARMED FORCES
With already serious nuclear waste problems and a very poor track record in nuclear safety, Russia has approved plans to import more spent nuclear waste from elsewhere in the world for reprocessing. Russia claims that it will use the profits to clean up its considerable nuclear waste problem, but there is worldwide skepticism about its ability to do so and fear of the consequences for the planet if its efforts are unsuccessful...
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