Imperial Russia's Diplomatic Goals in World War I На фото: Imperial Russia's Diplomatic Goals in World War I, автор: admin

Публикация №1188905942 04 сентября 2007

Like all the combatant powers at the onset of World War I, Russia expected to prevail in the conflict and developed comprehensive and far-reaching war aims. Many of these goals were long-standing. Since the eighteenth century, Russia had been trying to seize the Turkish Straits, its only access to the Mediterranean Sea and rich southern trade routes. Russian interests in Central Europe had moved from defending its western borders in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries to expanding into Polish territory in the eighteenth and attempting to create a hegemony over the Balkans in the nineteenth...

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Free to Speak? Establishing a Free Press in Russia На фото: Free to Speak? Establishing a Free Press in Russia, автор: admin

Публикация №1188905750 04 сентября 2007

the collapse of the Soviet Union. The Russian media began to actively report on the government and to question its actions. When President Vladimir Putin succeeded Boris Yeltsin into office, he implemented restrictions on the media that greatly reduced their freedoms. Putin also began to reinstate government controls over the media and to prosecute media companies and owners who did not comply...

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WWI and the Dissolution of Imperial Russia На фото: WWI and the Dissolution of Imperial Russia, автор: admin

Публикация №1188905500 04 сентября 2007

The first two years of the Great War strained tsarist Russia to its breaking point. Vladimir Lenin described the war as massively accelerating the process of revolution, and after nearly a century of hindsight it is difficult to establish a credible counterfactual scenario in which Russia might have avoided at least something along the lines of the February 1916 collapse of the monarchy. Was the war itself the cause of the collapse of Imperial Russia? Or did the war merely exacerbate fundamental weaknesses that had been previously demonstrated yet never effectively addressed?..

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Witte and Industrialization in Revolutionary Russia На фото: Witte and Industrialization in Revolutionary Russia, автор: admin

Публикация №1188905401 04 сентября 2007

Count Sergei Iul'evich Witte oversaw Russia's transition economy from 1892 to 1903. As finance minister, Witte pushed for greater exports, ambitious industrialization, and large foreign loans. He hoped to modernize Russia and make it competitive with other great powers. These policies by and large continued after Witte was dismissed in 1903 and were expanded by Witte when he returned to government as premier in 1905-1906, and by his successors...

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Social Class in Late Imperial Russia На фото: Social Class in Late Imperial Russia, автор: admin

Публикация №1188905279 04 сентября 2007

A traditional explanation for the success of the Bolshevik coup in November 1917 is the polarization of Russian society during the last decades of the empire. As Russia underwent rapid industrialization and urbanization--with the growth of a capital-controlling middle class and the proliferation of poor industrial workers--the traditional agrarian economy of Russia and the organization of its society into sosloviia (estates) was breaking down and becoming replaced with an unstable capitalist system. For some scholars, the classical Marxist paradigm of a radicalized proletariat seizing power from an oppressive bourgeoisie has best explained the Russian Revolution. According to this argument, no social conciliation was possible, and the Bolshevik Revolution of 1917 was inevitable...

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Climate Of Russia На фото: Climate Of Russia, автор: admin

Публикация №1188646240 01 сентября 2007

Russia is known for its long and bitter winters. The country's hostile climate helped stop various invaders during its history, including the large armies of Napoleon in 1812 and of Adolf Hitler in 1941 and 1942. In the Moscow region, snow covers the ground for about five months each year. In the northernmost part of Russia, snow abounds for eight to nine months a year. The small percentage of Russia's land that is fit for agriculture has a short growing season and insufficient rainfall. Half the land has permafrost beneath the surface. Most of the coastal waters, lakes, and rivers freeze for much of the year...

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Rivers And Lakes Of Russia На фото: Rivers And Lakes Of Russia, автор: admin

Публикация №1188646156 01 сентября 2007

Russia's many large rivers have served as important means of communication and commerce. The construction of canals further improved these activities...

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Land Regions Of Russia На фото: Land Regions Of Russia, автор: admin

Публикация №1188645401 01 сентября 2007

Many scientists divide Russia into four zones according to soil conditions and plant life, which are based mainly on climate. The zones form broad belts across Russia, and no sharp transitions separate them. From north to south, the zones are (1) the tundra, (2) the forest zone, (3) the steppes, and (4) the semidesert and mountainous zone...

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The Arts Of Russia На фото: The Arts Of Russia, автор: admin

Публикация №1188645271 01 сентября 2007

The arts in Russia date back to the earliest days of the country. But Russian artists did not produce internationally recognized works in many fields until the early 1800's. Throughout much of the 1800's and the early 1900's, Russia became an international leader in classical music, ballet, drama, and literature. Several Russian painters and sculptors also gained worldwide fame...

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Way Of Life In Russia На фото: Way Of Life In Russia, автор: admin

Публикация №1188644970 01 сентября 2007

The government of the Soviet Union controlled many aspects of life in the country. It exerted great influence over religion, education, and the arts. The independence of Russia following the breakup of the Soviet Union brought greater freedom and triggered many other changes in the lives of the people...

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