Communist Intellectuals На фото: Communist Intellectuals, автор: admin

Публикация №1190296917 20 сентября 2007

Were communist intellectuals duped by Soviet propaganda?

Viewpoint: Yes. Taken in by Soviet propaganda, Western intellectuals believed in communism because they were generally ignorant of its true costs and personally alienated from their own governments and societies.

Viewpoint: No. Western intellectuals were throughly convinced that in theory communism offered the best and most promising solutions for humanity's problems and that Soviet failures would be overcome.

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Collapse of the Soviet Union На фото: Collapse of the Soviet Union, автор: admin

Публикация №1190296846 20 сентября 2007

Was the collapse of the Soviet Union inevitable?

Viewpoint: Yes. The Soviet system had inherent political and economic flaws that made it unsustainable.

Viewpoint: No. The Soviet Union had the potential to remain stable; it was brought down by foreign pressures and bad leadership decisions.

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Women's Rights in the Early Soviet Republic На фото: Women's Rights in the Early Soviet Republic, автор: admin

Публикация №1190296770 20 сентября 2007

Did the Soviets support gender equity and women's rights?

Viewpoint: Yes. The Soviets viewed women as critical to the success of the state, and they ensured the fulfillment of women's rights and aspirations.

Viewpoint: No. The Soviets failed to establish meaningful equality for women, and many state directives contained fundamental gender biases.

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Soviet Nationalities Policy На фото: Soviet Nationalities Policy, автор: admin

Публикация №1190296703 20 сентября 2007

Was the Soviet nationalities policy instituted by Vladimir Lenin fair and balanced?

Viewpoint: Yes. The Soviets largely fulfilled Lenin's promises of national autonomy and nondiscrimination.

Viewpoint: No. The Soviets essentially reconstructed the tsarist empire and imposed de facto Great Russian rule.

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© Literacy and Education in the Early Soviet Union На фото: © Literacy and Education in the Early Soviet Union, автор: admin

Публикация №1190296667 20 сентября 2007

Did the Bolsheviks accelerate achievements in literacy and primary education in the Soviet Union? Viewpoint: Yes. Soviet mass literacy and education programs were swift and impressive agents of modernization. Viewpoint: No. Soviet accomplishments in education and literacy were neither more impressive than similar developments in Western Europe nor dramatic improvements over what the tsarist government had achieved.

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Lenin's New Economic Policy На фото: Lenin's New Economic Policy, автор: admin

Публикация №1190296614 20 сентября 2007

Was Vladimir Lenin committed to maintaining the New Economic Policy (NEP)?

Viewpoint: Yes. Vladimir Lenin was firmly committed to NEP and would have pursued it over the long term.

Viewpoint: No. Vladimir Lenin never saw NEP as more than a compromise to remain in power, and he would have eliminated it as soon as circumstances permitted.

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Russo-Japanese War На фото: Russo-Japanese War, автор: admin

Публикация №1190296572 20 сентября 2007

Vexed by Russia's expansion into the Liaodong Peninsula after the humiliating Triple Intervention of 1895, challenged by Russian troops in Manchuria even after suppression of the Boxers in China, and denied recognition of its claim to exclusive rights in Korea, Japan spent a decade on countermeasures: application of its Chinese war indemnity to ground and naval buildup, consummation of a defensive alliance with England, and direct negotiations with Russia. When diplomacy foundered in early 1904 Japanese hard-liners prevailed and Tokyo opted for hostilities. Control of the sea lanes to the continent was prerequisite. Japan broke off its diplomatic relations with Russia on 6 February and then struck by surprise on 8 February, when Japanese destroyers mauled the Russian squadron at Port Arthur (Chinese, Lüshun; Japanese, Ryojun). Both parties declared war on 10 February...

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Law, Russian (Muscovite), 1300-1500 На фото: Law, Russian (Muscovite), 1300-1500, автор: admin

Публикация №1190296519 20 сентября 2007

Law, Russian (Muscovite), 1300-1500. The centuries during which the principality of Muscovy extended its hegemony over most of northeast Russia witnessed an extraordinary growth in law and legal institutions. Not only did the main pre-Muscovite codes continue to be copied, but new law was created in many of the areas that came under Muscovy's domination by the early sixteenth century. Finally, Muscovy itself produced major codes that attempted to unify judicial practice throughout the principality...

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The Open Skies Negotiations На фото: The Open Skies Negotiations, автор: admin

Публикация №1190296469 20 сентября 2007

Open Skies refers to a proposal that allows participating countries to fly over each other's territory in order to build confidence that no untoward or threatening activities are going on below. It was first put forward by President Dwight D. Eisenhower in 1955 and was intended to allow the United States and the Soviet Union to overfly each other, but the negotiations went nowhere. In 1989, President George Bush revived the idea, expanding it to include all members of NATO and the Warsaw Pact. On 24 March 1992, after three years of negotiation during which the political relations of the parties were completely transformed and the Warsaw Pact disappeared, the Open Skies Treaty was signed...

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Controlling the Arms Trade Since 1945 На фото: Controlling the Arms Trade Since 1945, автор: admin

Публикация №1190296431 20 сентября 2007

For the first forty years after World War II, measures to restrict or control the global trade in weapons were slow to gain prominence on the international arms control and disarmament agenda. Although numerous partial proposals had been advanced or launched, these gained few adherents and had no appreciable impact on the volume or sophistication of the weapons traded. Yet the global arms trade has arguably played as large a role in post-1945 world politics (in terms of wars fought and lives lost) as the nuclear arms race between the superpower blocs, and the change since 1945 in the "international military system" has been unprecedented. With the end of the Cold War, a number of initiatives to control the arms trade were launched, some of which rapidly bore fruit. The United Nations, for example, has since 1990 mandated the imposition of five arms-transfer embargoes (in the context of various conflict-resolution efforts), more than in the previous forty years. This article will discuss the various proposals to control the arms trade and explore some of the reasons it has resisted international controls in spite of its importance. It will begin with an overview of the development of the global arms trade since 1945 and the different national regulations and policies governing arms transfers, review the history of post-1945 control initiatives, and analyze the problems with and future prospects for controls on the arms trade...

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