International Cooperation Of Russia
04 сентября 2007 Научная библиотека Порталус - Foreign relations
Аннотация от автора: Russia has essentially assumed and expanded upon the foreign relations ties established by the former Soviet Union. In one form or another, it has held a seat in the United Nations since 24 October 1945; it is a part of several nonregional specialized agencies, such as IAEA, ICAO, ILO, UNHCR, UNIDO, and the WHO. Russia is a permanent member of the UN Security Council. The nation is also member of APEC, the Commonwealth of Independent Nations, the Black Sea Economic Cooperation Zone, the Council of the Baltic Sea States, the Council of Europe, the Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council, the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, G-8, the Paris Club (G-10), and the OSCE. In June 2001, leaders of Russia, China, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan met in China to launch the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO) and sign an agreement to fight terrorism and ethnic and religious militancy while promoting trade. The country holds observer status in the OAS, the WTO, and the Latin American Integration Association (LAIA). Russia is a dialogue partner in ASEAN and part of the ASEAN Regional Forum...
Armed Forces Of Russia
04 сентября 2007 Научная библиотека Порталус ARMED FORCES
Аннотация от автора: With the collapse of the original Soviet Union in 1992, Russia established a separate Ministry of Defense and military establishment upon the wreckage of the Soviet armed forces. Still formidable in terms of weapons and equipment, the Russian armed forces reached a low state of morale and effectiveness in 1993, "hollowed" by low-manning, the failure of draft calls, diversion to survival tasks rather than training, and lack of discipline. In the following years, military reforms were undertaken. The first phase, completed by the end of 1998, involved reorganization of the military command structure, redistricting, and troop reductions. The second phase focused on equipment modernization and operational readiness. Readiness was also improved in response to the NATO bombing of Serbia following hostilities in Kosovo...
Migration To Russia
04 сентября 2007 Научная библиотека Порталус DEMOGRAPHICS
Аннотация от автора: During 1979-88, Russia gained 1,747,040 people through net migration from other Soviet republics. Germany took in 156,299 former Soviet Germans in 1991. As of May, 1996, there were still 75,000 internally displaced persons from the Chernobyl accident in 1986. Following the military conflicts in Chechnya of 1994, 220,000 people fled to the neighboring republics of Daghestan, Ingushetia, and North Ossetia...
The Brief History Of Russia
04 сентября 2007 Научная библиотека Порталус HISTORY
Аннотация от автора: The history of Russia is usually dated from the 9th century ad when a loose federation of the eastern Slavic tribes was achieved under the legendary Rurik. At this time, Kiev was the political and cultural center. Vulnerable due to the flat land that surrounded them, the Kievan rulers sought security through expansion--a policy that subsequent Russian leaders frequently pursued...
Environment Of Russia
04 сентября 2007 Научная библиотека Порталус GEOGRAPHY and CLIMATE
Аннотация от автора: Decades of Soviet mismanagement resulted in the catastrophic pollution of land, air, rivers, and seacoasts. Air pollution is especially a problem in the Urals and Kuznetsk (where vast populations are exposed to hazardous emissions from metal-processing plants) as well as in the Volga and Moscow regions. In 1992 Russia had the world's third-highest level of industrial carbon dioxide emissions, which totaled 2.1 billion metric tons, a per capita level of 14.11 metric tons. However, in 1996 the total dropped to 1.5 billion metric tons and in 2000 the total was about 1.4 billion metric tons...
Flora And Fauna Of Russia
04 сентября 2007 Научная библиотека Порталус GEOGRAPHY and CLIMATE
Аннотация от автора: ssia has several soil and vegetation zones, each with its characteristic flora and fauna. Northernmost is the so-called arctic desert zone, which includes most of the islands of the Arctic Ocean and the seacoast of the Taymyr Peninsula. These areas are characterized by the almost complete absence of plant cover; only mosses and lichens are to be found. Birds and mammals associated with the sea (sea calf, seal, and walrus) are typical of this zone...
Climate Of Russia
04 сентября 2007 Научная библиотека Порталус - Climate
Аннотация от автора: Most of the country has a continental climate, with long, cold winters and brief summers. There is a wide range of summer and winter temperatures and relatively low precipitation. January temperatures are in the range of 6°c (45°f) on the southeastern shore of the Black Sea. A record low temperature of -71°c (-96°f) was recorded in 1974 at the northeast Siberian village of Oymyakon, the lowest temperature ever recorded anywhere in the world for an inhabited region. In many areas of Siberia the soil never thaws for more than a foot...
Topography Of Russia
04 сентября 2007 Научная библиотека Порталус - Topography
Аннотация от автора: From west to east, the country can be roughly divided into five large geographic regions: the Great European Plain, the Ural Mountains, the West Siberian Plain, the Central Siberian Plateau, and the mountains of the northeast and southeast. The Great European and West Siberian Plains contain a variety of terrain, including grasslands and farmlands as well as forests, swamps, and large regions of tundra. The Caucasus Mountains, located between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea at the southwest of the Great European Plain, are divided into two chains separated by lowlands. The Caucasus Mountains form the border with Russia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia and mark the boundary between Asia to the south and Europe to the north. The highest peak in the Caucasus Mountains is the extinct volcano Mt. Elbrus (5,642 m/18,510 ft); this is also the highest peak in Russia and Europe. The lowest point in Russia is at the Caspian Sea, 28 m (92 ft) below sea level. The Caspian Sea is the world's largest lake...
Moscow Kremlin, Art and Architecture
04 сентября 2007 Научная библиотека Порталус CULTURE
Аннотация от автора: Major building began in the Moscow Kremlin only after the wooden fortifications were replaced by stone walls in the 1360's. The present towers were added during the late fifteenth century by Italian architects, although the preserved tower roofs date only from the seventeenth century...
Tsar Nicholas II and World War I
04 сентября 2007 Научная библиотека Порталус - Imperial Russia
Аннотация от автора: Russian tsar Nicholas II left the newly renamed city of Petrograd (formerly St. Petersburg) in 1915 to assume personal command of the armies at the front. He did so against the urgent advice of his ministers, who argued that an already disrupted administration would be strained to the collapsing point if the autocrat ultimately responsible for decision making was five hundred miles out of touch. They contended that it was foolish to take such a step after the series of defeats Russia had suffered during the summer: setbacks resulting in the loss of Warsaw, the sacrifice of two million casualties, and the virtual exhaustion of Russian reserves of weapons and ammunition. Instead of being the rallying point of the Russian people at war, the monarchy would become their scapegoat by accepting de facto responsibility for anything else that might go wrong with the conduct of operations.
Nicholas was adamant. Since August 1914 he had wanted to take the field at the head of his troops. He spent as much time as possible at army headquarters, frequently accompanied by his son, playing the roles of a loving father and an interested spectator. His own military skills were best illustrated by his personally testing a new design of uniform and pack in a nine-hour march before the war. If Tsar Nicholas manifested the virtues of a storekeeper, as a soldier he showed the qualities of a supply sergeant. Nor did the tsar possess the force of character to impress the senior staff officers who now did the real work of command. None of the military decisions made between his assumption of command and his abdication in 1916 owed anything to his input. Instead, familiarity bred neglect. The tsar was no longer a figure of awe and mystery--just the unassuming middle-aged man in an unpretentious uniform who waited every day for the regular letters from his wife.
Nicholas's gesture had international consequences. The French and British governments interpreted it as nailing the flag to the mast: the tsar's government would stand or fall with the outcome of the war. Germany too processed the decision as a signifier, ending any possibility of a negotiated peace. The real significance of Nicholas's decision, however, was as his advisers predicted. His physical removal from Petrograd left the threads of government hanging. They were taken up by the tsarina. German-born and lacking the intellectual development to shape her driving energy, which was increasingly in thrall to her sinister adviser monk, Grigory Rasputin, Alexandra would complete the catastrophe of the empire...