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RUSSIA (TOPICS) есть новые публикации за сегодня \\ 08.07.20



Soviet Nationalities Policy
публикация №1190296703

20 сентября 2007 Научная библиотека Порталус DEMOGRAPHICS

Аннотация от автора: Was the Soviet nationalities policy instituted by Vladimir Lenin fair and balanced?

Viewpoint: Yes. The Soviets largely fulfilled Lenin's promises of national autonomy and nondiscrimination.

Viewpoint: No. The Soviets essentially reconstructed the tsarist empire and imposed de facto Great Russian rule.

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© Literacy and Education in the Early Soviet Union
публикация №1190296667

20 сентября 2007 Научная библиотека Порталус - Education and health

Аннотация от автора:

Did the Bolsheviks accelerate achievements in literacy and primary education in the Soviet Union? Viewpoint: Yes. Soviet mass literacy and education programs were swift and impressive agents of modernization. Viewpoint: No. Soviet accomplishments in education and literacy were neither more impressive than similar developments in Western Europe nor dramatic improvements over what the tsarist government had achieved.

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Lenin's New Economic Policy
публикация №1190296614

20 сентября 2007 Научная библиотека Порталус - Soviet Russia (1917-53)

Аннотация от автора: Was Vladimir Lenin committed to maintaining the New Economic Policy (NEP)?

Viewpoint: Yes. Vladimir Lenin was firmly committed to NEP and would have pursued it over the long term.

Viewpoint: No. Vladimir Lenin never saw NEP as more than a compromise to remain in power, and he would have eliminated it as soon as circumstances permitted.

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Russo-Japanese War
публикация №1190296572

20 сентября 2007 Научная библиотека Порталус - Imperial Russia

Аннотация от автора: Vexed by Russia's expansion into the Liaodong Peninsula after the humiliating Triple Intervention of 1895, challenged by Russian troops in Manchuria even after suppression of the Boxers in China, and denied recognition of its claim to exclusive rights in Korea, Japan spent a decade on countermeasures: application of its Chinese war indemnity to ground and naval buildup, consummation of a defensive alliance with England, and direct negotiations with Russia. When diplomacy foundered in early 1904 Japanese hard-liners prevailed and Tokyo opted for hostilities. Control of the sea lanes to the continent was prerequisite. Japan broke off its diplomatic relations with Russia on 6 February and then struck by surprise on 8 February, when Japanese destroyers mauled the Russian squadron at Port Arthur (Chinese, Lüshun; Japanese, Ryojun). Both parties declared war on 10 February...

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Law, Russian (Muscovite), 1300-1500
публикация №1190296519

20 сентября 2007 Научная библиотека Порталус - Muscovy

Аннотация от автора: Law, Russian (Muscovite), 1300-1500. The centuries during which the principality of Muscovy extended its hegemony over most of northeast Russia witnessed an extraordinary growth in law and legal institutions. Not only did the main pre-Muscovite codes continue to be copied, but new law was created in many of the areas that came under Muscovy's domination by the early sixteenth century. Finally, Muscovy itself produced major codes that attempted to unify judicial practice throughout the principality...

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The Open Skies Negotiations
публикация №1190296469

20 сентября 2007 Научная библиотека Порталус ARMED FORCES

Аннотация от автора: Open Skies refers to a proposal that allows participating countries to fly over each other's territory in order to build confidence that no untoward or threatening activities are going on below. It was first put forward by President Dwight D. Eisenhower in 1955 and was intended to allow the United States and the Soviet Union to overfly each other, but the negotiations went nowhere. In 1989, President George Bush revived the idea, expanding it to include all members of NATO and the Warsaw Pact. On 24 March 1992, after three years of negotiation during which the political relations of the parties were completely transformed and the Warsaw Pact disappeared, the Open Skies Treaty was signed...

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Controlling the Arms Trade Since 1945
публикация №1190296431

20 сентября 2007 Научная библиотека Порталус ARMED FORCES

Аннотация от автора: For the first forty years after World War II, measures to restrict or control the global trade in weapons were slow to gain prominence on the international arms control and disarmament agenda. Although numerous partial proposals had been advanced or launched, these gained few adherents and had no appreciable impact on the volume or sophistication of the weapons traded. Yet the global arms trade has arguably played as large a role in post-1945 world politics (in terms of wars fought and lives lost) as the nuclear arms race between the superpower blocs, and the change since 1945 in the "international military system" has been unprecedented. With the end of the Cold War, a number of initiatives to control the arms trade were launched, some of which rapidly bore fruit. The United Nations, for example, has since 1990 mandated the imposition of five arms-transfer embargoes (in the context of various conflict-resolution efforts), more than in the previous forty years. This article will discuss the various proposals to control the arms trade and explore some of the reasons it has resisted international controls in spite of its importance. It will begin with an overview of the development of the global arms trade since 1945 and the different national regulations and policies governing arms transfers, review the history of post-1945 control initiatives, and analyze the problems with and future prospects for controls on the arms trade...

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Anti-Satellite Weapons and Arms Control
публикация №1190296382

20 сентября 2007 Научная библиотека Порталус ARMED FORCES

Аннотация от автора: Satellites provide important support services to military forces on earth and, therefore, contribute significantly to the stability of the strategic balance. The importance of military space systems in times of both war and peace led to the development of ambivalent policies on the part of the United States and the former Soviet Union. From the late 1950s on, each country sought to acquire anti-satellite (ASAT) weapons to reduce the combat effectiveness of the other's satellites. Each country also, at various times, sought to undertake arms control negotiations to reduce the threat posed by the other's anti-satellite weapons (ASATS)...

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The INF Treaty: Eliminating Intermediate-Range Nuclear Missiles, 1987 to the Present
публикация №1190296326

20 сентября 2007 Научная библиотека Порталус ARMED FORCES

Аннотация от автора:
The U.S.-Soviet agreement to eliminate intermediate-range (500 to 5,000 km, or 312 to 3,120 mi.) nuclear missiles, known as the INF Treaty, was signed on 8 December 1987 and ratified by the U.S. Senate on 27 May 1988. The agreement was the culmination of a protracted domestic and international debate about the role of U.S. nuclear weapons in Europe and, more generally, about the basic legitimacy of United States-Soviet arms control agreements. As the first agreement between the two sides to eliminate--rather than simply reduce or constrain--an entire class of weapons, the INF Treaty is popularly believed to be a major arms control success story...

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The Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty: 1972 to the Present
публикация №1190296290

20 сентября 2007 Научная библиотека Порталус ARMED FORCES

Аннотация от автора: The Anti-Ballistic Missile (ABM) Treaty of 1972 prohibits the United States and the Soviet Union--now replaced by Russia as the United States' principal treaty partner--from deploying nationwide defenses against strategic ballistic missiles. While neither superpower ever entirely abandoned the search for defenses against the nuclear threat, the ABM Treaty was based on a recognition by both superpowers that no foreseeable technology could provide an effective defense against the fearsome destructive power of nuclear weapons, and that building a missile defense would only force the other side to augment its offensive forces to overcome it, in order to maintain its nuclear deterrent. The resulting race between missiles and missile defenses would be expensive and potentially dangerous, would make negotiated restraints on offensive strategic forces impossible, and would undermine the predictability necessary for strategic planning...

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